Topic Review
The XTS-400 is a multilevel secure computer operating system. It is multiuser and multitasking that uses multilevel scheduling in processing data and information. It works in networked environments and supports Gigabit Ethernet and both IPv4 and IPv6. The XTS-400 is a combination of Intel x86 hardware and the Secure Trusted Operating Program (STOP) operating system. XTS-400 was developed by BAE Systems, and originally released as version 6.0 in December 2003. STOP provides high-assurance security and was the first general-purpose operating system with a Common Criteria assurance level rating of EAL5 or above. The XTS-400 can host, and be trusted to separate, multiple, concurrent data sets, users, and networks at different sensitivity levels. The XTS-400 provides both an untrusted environment for normal work and a trusted environment for administrative work and for privileged applications. The untrusted environment is similar to traditional Unix environments. It provides binary compatibility with Linux applications running most Linux commands and tools as well as most Linux applications without the need for recompiling. This untrusted environment includes an X Window System GUI, though all windows on a screen must be at the same sensitivity level. To support the trusted environment and various security features, STOP provides a set of proprietary APIs to applications. In order to develop programs that use these proprietary APIs, a special software development environment (SDE) is needed. The SDE is also needed in order to port some complicated Linux/Unix applications to the XTS-400. A new version of the STOP operating system, STOP 7 has since been introduced, with claims to have improved performance and new features such as RBAC.
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Topic Review
The XSwitch is an interconnect used by the XCore processor. The interconnect protocol is defined by XMOS, and is based around routing messages comprising 9-bit tokens between cores on a network. The protocol is specifically designed for on-chip and board-level communication, but using LVDS drivers it can also run over longer cables.
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  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
XR, Vision Impairments and Empathy
Across the world, an increasing number of people experience vision impairments or blindness. For people with healthy eyes, it may be difficult to discern how the world looks to a person with impaired eyesight. Medical explanations in books and articles, descriptions from patients, and 2D images of impaired vision are often insufficient to communicate the negative effects of vision impairments and to truly make someone understand how the world looks through the eyes of a visually impaired person. Relatives, employers, and even the medical providers of those impacted by eye diseases may benefit from simulations of vision impairments, to increase understanding, sympathy, and empathy. Research on digital vision-impairment simulations has increased. With the rise of emerging technologies such as extended reality (XR), simulations can now be made more realistic and immersive than ever before. This document provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in simulating vision impairments using a variety of hardware and software solutions that address different conditions and impairments. It also discusses the role of XR solutions in increasing sympathy and empathy for people with vision impairments.
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  • 15 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Xlib (also known as libX11) is an X Window System protocol client library written in the C programming language. It contains functions for interacting with an X server. These functions allow programmers to write programs without knowing the details of the X protocol. Few applications use Xlib directly; rather, they employ other libraries that use Xlib functions to provide widget toolkits: Xlib appeared around 1985, and is used in GUIs for many Unix-like operating systems. A re-implementation of Xlib was introduced in 2007 using XCB.
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  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Xi (Alternate Reality Game)
Xi (UK: /ˈsaɪ/ or US: /ˈzaɪ/) was the world's first console-based and virtual world-based alternate reality game. It was a one-time-only play, unfolding in real time, and only available on the PlayStation 3 through the social gaming network, PlayStation Home. The game was an adventure to help find "Jess" and the meaning of Xi by collecting fragments and butterflies found in a series of secret areas in Home that changed frequently. The game also challenged the users to search for clues in the real world. The game was created by nDreams who released several spaces for Xi. The game was promoted through a teaser campaign of clues and hints during the month prior to its release on March 23, 2009. The clues were hidden in the Menu Pad and videos in the central meeting point. The game lasted a total of 12 weeks from its release. Xi and all of the corresponding spaces were exclusive to the European and North American versions of PlayStation Home, though there were also websites, videos, printed media and live events which were accessible to anyone. In September 2009, it was reported that the number of visits to the Xi spaces, including the ones after Xi's completion, had exceeded 5 million visits. A sequel, Xi: Continuum, was released in December 2012.
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  • 30 Oct 2022
Topic Review
XEDIT is a visual editor for VM/CMS using block mode IBM 3270 terminals. (Line-mode terminals are also supported.) XEDIT is much more line-oriented than modern PC and Unix editors. For example, XEDIT supports automatic line numbers, and many of the commands operate on blocks of lines. A pair of features allows selective line and column editing. The ALL command, for example, hides all lines not matching the described pattern, and the COL (Column) command allows hiding those columns not specified. Hence changing, for example, the word NO as it appears only in columns 24 thru 28, to YES, and only on lines with the word FLEXIBLE, is doable. Another feature is a command line which allows the user to type arbitrary editor commands. Because IBM 3270 terminals do not transmit data to the computer until certain special keys are pressed [such as , a program function key (PFK), or a program access key (PAK), XEDIT is less interactive than many PC and Unix editors. For example, continuous spell-checking as the user types is problematic.
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  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
XCore Architecture
The XCore Architecture is a 32-bit RISC microprocessor architecture designed by XMOS. The architecture is designed to be used in multi-core processors for embedded systems. Each XCore executes up to eight concurrent threads, each thread having its own register set, and the architecture directly supports inter-thread and inter-core communication and various forms of thread scheduling. Two versions of the XCore architecture exist: the XS1 architecture and the XS2 architecture. Processors with the XS1 architecture include the XCore XS1-G4 and XCore XS1-L1. Processors with the XS2 architecture include xCORE-200. The architecture encodes instructions compactly, using 16 bits for frequently used instructions (with up to three operands) and 32 bits for less frequently used instructions (with up to 6 operands). Almost all instructions execute in a single cycle, and the architecture is event-driven in order to decouple the timings that a program needs to make from the execution speed of the program. A program will normally perform its computations and then wait for an event (e.g. a message, time, or external I/O event) before continuing.
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  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
XC (Programming Language)
In computers, XC is a programming language for real-time embedded parallel processors, targeted at the XMOS XCore processor architecture. XC is an imperative language, based on the features for parallelism and communication in occam, and the syntax and sequential features of C. It provides primitive features that correspond to the various architectural resources provided, namely: channel ends, locks, ports and timers. In combination with XCore processors, XC is used to build embedded systems with levels of I/O, real-time performance and computational ability usually attributed to field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) or application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) devices.
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  • 28 Oct 2022
Topic Review
The XBRL Global Ledger Taxonomy Framework (XBRL GL) is a holistic and generic XML and XBRL-based representation of the detailed data that can be found in accounting and operational systems, and is meant to be the bridge from transactional standards to reporting standards, integrating the Business Reporting Supply Chain. XBRL GL is developed by the XBRL GL Working Group of XBRL International. XBRL GL can be used by Computer programs for information interchange of accounting General ledger balances (summarized information) as well as complete accounting ledgers (payables, receivables, inventory, payroll, order entry, purchasing, banking) supporting object oriented accounting, quantity accounting and transparency support. The instance documents (XML files) can also be viewed in Web browsers using XSL or programmatically; it can also be carried in Inline XBRL. XBRL is designed to standardize the data, processes and rules of Business Reporting as a whole, although most implementations focus on financial reporting. XBRL GL can support the detail and integrate to all manners of reporting, financial, tax, sustainability, statistics and otherwise, and carry both quantitative and qualitative information.
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  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Xbox One System Software
The Xbox One system software, sometimes called the Xbox OS, or Xbox Dashboard (when a person is referring to software updates), is the operating system developed exclusively for the Xbox One consoles. It is a Microsoft Windows-based operating system using the Hyper-V virtual machine monitor and contains separate operating systems for games and applications that can run on the console. It is located on the internal HDD for day-to-day usage, while also being duplicated on the internal NAND storage of the console for recovery purposes and factory reset functionality. The Xbox One allows users to download applications that add to the functionality of the dashboard. From June 2014 onwards, entertainment apps no longer required the user to be signed into a valid Xbox Live Gold account in order to use the features advertised for the given app. Since launch, Microsoft has been updating the OS monthly, with updates downloaded from the Xbox Live service directly to the Xbox One and subsequently installed, or by using offline recovery images downloaded via a PC. In November 2015, a major system update known as the New Xbox One Experience was released, which brought very significant changes to the design and functionality of the system. The Windows 10-based Core had replaced the Windows 8-based one in this update, and the new system is sometimes referred to as "Windows 10 on Xbox One".
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