Topic Review
Calendar of 13 Months
Has anyone of us missed an event because he was confused between days and dates? Do we really remember the date of any day if we do not have a calendar? Is the current Gregorian Calendar efficient enough for use, and does it really facilitate our life or make it more complicated?  Have you ever thought about a much simpler way to calculate days and dates in a year? All these questions are answered in this article, in which the author proposes an original calendar that might facilitate our lives if we can apply it.
  • 200.7K
  • 12 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Six Stages to Choose Sampling Techniques
In order to answer the research questions, it is doubtful that researcher should be able to collect data from all cases. Thus, there is a need to select a sample. The entire set of cases from which researcher sample is drawn in called the population. Since, researchers neither have time nor the resources to analysis the entire population so they apply sampling technique to reduce the number of cases. There are six stages to choose sampling techniques.
  • 100.7K
  • 17 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Plus-Minus Sign
The plus-minus sign (±) is a mathematical symbol with multiple meanings. The sign is normally pronounced "plus or minus". In mathematics, it generally indicates a choice of exactly two possible values, one of which is the negation of the other. In experimental sciences, the sign commonly indicates the confidence interval or error in a measurement, often the standard deviation or standard error. The sign may also represent an inclusive range of values that a reading might have. In engineering the sign indicates the tolerance, which is the range of values that are considered to be acceptable, safe, or which comply with some standard, or with a contract. In botany it is used in morphological descriptions to notate "more or less". In chemistry the sign is used to indicate a racemic mixture. In chess, the sign indicates a clear advantage for the white player; the complementary sign ∓ indicates the same advantage for the black player.
  • 61.6K
  • 23 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Information and Communication Technologies for Development
Information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) refers to the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) toward social, economic, and political development, with a particular emphasis on helping poor and marginalized people and communities. It aims to help in international development by bridging the digital divide and providing equitable access to technologies. ICT4D is grounded in the notions of "development", "growth", "progress" and "globalization" and is often interpreted as the use of technology to deliver a greater good. Another similar term used in the literature is "digital development". ICT4D draws on theories and frameworks from many disciplines, including sociology, economics, development studies, library, information science, and communication studies.
  • 29.6K
  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Planck Length
In physics, the Planck length, denoted ℓP, is a unit of length in the system of Planck units that was originally proposed by physicist Max Planck, equal to 1.616255(18)×10−35 m.[note 1] The Planck length can be defined from three fundamental physical constants: the speed of light, the Planck constant, and the gravitational constant. It is also the reduced Compton wavelength of a particle with Planck mass. Regardless of whether it represents some fundamental limit to the universe, it is a useful unit in theoretical physics.
  • 22.2K
  • 18 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Gompertz Function with R
The Gompertz function is a sigmoid curve being a special case of a logistic curve. Although it was originally designed to describe mortality, it is now used in biology. For example, it is useful to describe many  phenomena such as the growth of a cancerous tumor confined to an organ without metastasis, the growth of the number of individuals in a population, e.g. prey in a Volterra-Lotka model, the germination of seeds, etc. It also models as the logistic function the growth of a colony of bacteria or in an epidemic the spread of the number of infected people. However, despite its many applications, in many cases the fitting of experimental data to the Gompertz function is not always straightforward. In this article we present a protocol that will be useful when performing the data regression to this curve using the statistical package R.
  • 20.8K
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Digital Journalism
Digital journalism also known as online journalism is a contemporary form of journalism where editorial content is distributed via the Internet as opposed to publishing via print or broadcast. What constitutes 'digital journalism' is debated by scholars. However the primary product of journalism, which is news and features on current affairs, is presented solely or in combination as text, audio, video, or some interactive forms like newsgames, and disseminated through digital media technology. Fewer barriers to entry, lowered distribution costs, and diverse computer networking technologies have led to the widespread practice of digital journalism. It has democratized the flow of information that was previously controlled by traditional media including newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. Some have asserted that a greater degree of creativity can be exercised with digital journalism when compared to traditional journalism and traditional media. The digital aspect may be central to the journalistic message and remains, to some extent, within the creative control of the writer, editor, and/or publisher.
  • 20.7K
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Photo Manipulation
Photo manipulation involves transforming or altering a photograph using various methods and techniques to achieve desired results. Some photo manipulations are considered skillful artwork while others are frowned upon as unethical practices, especially when used to deceive the public. Other examples include being used for political propaganda, or to make a product or person look better, or simply for entertainment purposes or harmless pranks. Depending on the application and intent, some photo manipulations are considered an art form because it involves the creation of unique images and in some instances, signature expressions of art by photographic artists. For example, Ansel Adams employed some of the more common manipulations using darkroom exposure techniques, burning (darkening) and dodging (lightening) a photograph. Other examples of photo manipulation include retouching photographs using ink or paint, airbrushing, double exposure, piecing photos or negatives together in the darkroom, scratching instant films, or through the use of software-based manipulation tools applied to digital images. There are a number of software applications available for digital image manipulation, ranging from professional applications to very basic imaging software for casual users.
  • 20.6K
  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Blockchain Oracle Problem
The Blockchain Oracle Problem refers to the inability of confirming the veracity of the data collected by oracles. Also, depending on the type, the chances of malfunction, and deliberate tampering. 
  • 19.7K
  • 23 Mar 2023
Topic Review
TCP-based Congestion Control Algorithms
In today’s data networks, the main protocol used to ensure reliable communications is the transmission control protocol (TCP). The TCP performance is largely determined by the used congestion control (CC) algorithm, which main purpose is to avoid the congestion of the network that can be caused by a large burst of data traffic. TCP CC algorithms have evolved over the past three decades and a large number of CC algorithm variations have been developed to accommodate various communication network environments. Considering the importance of CC in communication networks, the fundamentals of the TCP as the main transport layer protocol and CC process have been explained in detail. Also, an encyclopedic overview of the most popular single-flow and multi-flow TCP CC algorithms with corresponding alternatives has been present. Future directions in the possible improvement of CC algorithms for implementation in complex heterogeneous networks composed of wired and wireless elements are lastly discussed in this encyclopedic work. 
  • 19.5K
  • 21 Jul 2021
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