Topic Review
Xylose Metabolism in Bacteria
Some wild-type and genetically modified bacteria can metabolize xylose through three different main pathways of metabolism: xylose isomerase pathway, oxidoreductase pathway, and non-phosphorylative pathway (including Weimberg and Dahms pathways). Two of the commercially interesting intermediates of these pathways are xylitol and xylonic acid, which can accumulate in the medium either through manipulation of the culture conditions or through genetic modification of the bacteria. 
  • 196
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Waste-to-Energy Technologies for Slum/Informal Settlements in Nigeria
Slum/informal settlements are an integral part of a city, with a population projected to reach 3 billion by 2030. It is also expected that the rate of waste generation will more than triple by 2050 in the cities of low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa. At this rate, the risk to the environment and health of inhabitants are enormous, because the current waste management practices are not guided by legislation on proper use and disposal.
  • 69
  • 21 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Waste Natural Polymers
 Waste natural polymers have received much attention as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and low-cost filler in polymer composites. In order to exploit the high potential for residual natural loading in latex composites, different types of surface modification techniques have been applied. This review discusses the preparation and characterization of the modified waste natural fillers for latex-based composites. The potency of the waste natural filler for the latex-based composites was explored with a focus on the mechanical, thermal, biodegradability and filler–latex interaction.
  • 99
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Waste Heat Recovery Technologies Revisited with New Solutions
Waste heat recovery (WHR) has been a challenge for industries, as it can lead to energy savings, higher energy efficiency, and sustainability. WHR technologies are usually classified based on the output provided, namely heat recovery (HR) or heat-to-power (H2P) conversion. 
  • 197
  • 18 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Variants
The VRP solution revolves around finding a route plan, that is, a set of routes associated with a fleet of vehicles, which implies low costs associated with time, fuel, total distance traveled, and labor charges. 
  • 78
  • 31 May 2022
Topic Review
UX in AR-Supported Industrial Human–Robot Collaborative Tasks
The fourth industrial revolution is promoting the Operator 4.0 paradigm, originating from a renovated attention towards human factors, growingly involved in the design of modern, human-centered processes. New technologies, such as augmented reality or collaborative robotics are thus increasingly studied and progressively applied to solve the modern operators’ needs. Human-centered design approaches can help to identify user’s needs and functional requirements, solving usability issues, or reducing cognitive or physical stress. 
  • 120
  • 14 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Updated Principles of Sustainable Engineering
Sustainable engineering refers to the integration of social, environmental, and economic considerations into product, process, and energy system design methods. Additionally, sustainable engineering encourages the consideration of the complete product and process lifecycle during the design effort. 
  • 61
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Unmanned Ground Vehicles
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) have great potential in the application of both civilian and military fields, and have become the focus of research in many countries. Environmental perception technology is the foundation of UGVs, which is of great significance to achieve a safer and more efficient performance.
  • 893
  • 22 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Ultrasound and HPP to Control Fruit Enzymatic Browning
Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is an endogenous enzyme, which is naturally present in plant tissues, and it has also been referred to as polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, tyrosinase, phenolase, catecholase, and o-diphenol oxidase. It is an oxidoreductase-copper-containing metalloprotein, which catalyses the degradation of phenolic fruit constituents to o-quinones in the presence of oxygen. The combination of ultrasound with temperature, and high pressure processing (HPP) with temperature to inactivate polyphenoloxidase enzyme in three fruits (pear, apple and strawberry) was investigated and compared with PPO inactivation exclusively by a thermal process. 
  • 51
  • 12 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Tool Wear Suppression Methods of Diamond-cutting Ferrous Metals
This entry introduces some common tool wear suppression methods of diamond-cutting ferrous metals.
  • 696
  • 30 Oct 2020
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