Topic Review
3D Printing
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
  • 1.6K
  • 20 Apr 2021
Topic Review
A Low-Cost, Flexible Pressure Capacitor Sensor using Polyurethane for Wireless Vehicle Detection
Detection of vehicles on the road can contribute to the establishment of an intelligent transportation management system to allow smooth transportation and the reduction of road accidents. Thus far, an efficient and low-cost polymer flexible pressure sensor for vehicle detection is lacking. This paper presents a flexible sensor for vehicle sensing and demonstrates a wireless system for monitoring vehicles on the road. A vehicle sensor is fabricated by sandwiching a polyurethane material between Aluminum top/bottom electrodes. The sensing mechanism is based on changes in capacitance due to variation in the distance between the two electrodes at an applied external pressure. A clear response against a pressure load of 0.65 Mpa is observed, which is the same pressure as that of the car tire area in contact with the road. Significantly, the sensor is easy to embed on the road line due to its mechanical flexibility and large size. A field test is carried out by embedding the sensor on the road and crossing the sensor with a car. Moreover, the signal displayed on the tablet indicates that the sensing system can be used for wireless detection of the axle, speed, or weight of the vehicle on the road. The findings suggest that the flexible pressure sensor is a promising tool for use as a low-cost vehicle detector in future intelligent transportation management.
  • 2.0K
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
A Review of Description Languages and Systems
Testing and validation of the functionalities and safety of automated vehicles shifted from a distance-based to a scenario-based method in the past decade. A number of domain-specific languages and systems were developed to support scenario-based testing.
  • 488
  • 29 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing Technology in Railway Infrastructure Systems
Additive manufacturing technologies, well known as three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, have been applied in many industrial fields, including aerospace, automobiles, shipbuilding, civil engineering and nuclear power. However, despite the high material utilization and the ability to rapidly construct complex shaped structures of 3D printing technologies, the application of additive manufacturing technologies in railway track infrastructure is still at the exploratory stage. 
  • 1.7K
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Combustion for Improving Thermal Efficiency
Improving thermal efficiency and reducing carbon emissions are the permanent themes for internal combustion (IC) engines. Improving thermal efficiency and reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions motivate the technological progress of the automobile and engine industry.
  • 975
  • 14 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydrogen Trains
Hydrogen and electric drives used in various means of transport is a leading topic in many respects.
  • 886
  • 07 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Airport Service Quality and Overall Satisfaction
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has impacted the aviation industry worldwide. Several restrictions and regulations have been implemented to prevent the virus’s spread and maintain airport operations. To recover the trustworthiness of air travelers in the new normality, improving airport service quality (ASQ) is necessary, ultimately increasing passenger satisfaction in airports.
  • 852
  • 19 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Ammonia and Hydrogen Energy Utilization in Road Transportation
The crisscross progress of transportation and energy carries the migrating track of human society development and the evolution of civilization, among which the decarbonization strategy is a key issue. Traffic carbon emissions account for 16.2% of total energy carbon emissions, while road traffic carbon emissions account for 11.8% of total energy carbon emissions. Therefore, road traffic is a vital battlefield in attaining the goal of decarbonization. Employing clean energy as an alternative fuel is of great significance to the transformation of the energy consumption structure in road transportation. Hydrogen and ammonia are renewable energy with the characteristics of being widely distributed and clean. Both exist naturally in nature, and the products of complete combustion are substances (water and nitrogen) that do not pollute the atmosphere. Because it can promote agricultural production, ammonia has a long history in human society. Both have the potential to replace traditional fossil fuel energy. 
  • 401
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Analysis of Following Vehicles’ Driving Patterns
Despite the potential benefits of autonomous vehicles (AVs) of reducing human driver errors and enhancing traffic safety, a comprehensive evaluation of recent AV collision data reveals a concerning trend of rear-end collisions caused by following vehicles. Developing a methodology that identifies the relationship between driving patterns and the risk of collision between leading and following vehicles using spectral analysis can address this issue. Specifically, a process is proposed for computing three indices: reaction time, stimulus compliance index, and collision-risk aversion index. These indices consistently produced reliable results under various traffic conditions. The findings align with existing research on the driving patterns of following vehicles. Given the consistency and robustness of these indices, they can be effectively utilized in advanced driver assistance systems or incorporated into AVs to assess the likelihood of collision risk posed by following vehicles and develop safer driving strategies accordingly.
  • 195
  • 18 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Application of RAP in Asphalt Concrete Pavements
The use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) materials in asphalt concrete pavements (ACP) brings significant cost and environmental benefits. In practice, however, the amount of RAP readily available far exceeds the amount being utilized in ACPs, which still leaves the problem of excess RAP in the environment partially solved. Additionally, ACPs containing RAP materials (i.e., RAP-ACPs) can still be landfilled after they have reached the end of their useful life, which may restore the original environmental waste problem. To address these, researchers have demonstrated different ways to maximize the application of RAP in ACPs. Among them, the use of RAP in pavement preventive maintenance (PPM) treatments and the repeated recycling of RAP-ACPs (i.e., RnAP) are specifically discussed herein. It is envisaged that, by promoting these two practices, the application and benefits of RAP can be further maximized to improve sustainability. 
  • 1.2K
  • 25 Nov 2022
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