Topic Review
Bladder Cancer Biomarkers
The high occurrence of bladder cancer and its tendency to recur combined with lifelong surveillance make the treatment of superficial bladder cancer one of the most expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, carcinoma in situ often leads to muscle invasion with an unfavourable prognosis. Currently, invasive methods including cystoscopy and cytology remain a gold standard. The aim is to find biomarkers with the best specificity and sensitivity, allowing the treatment plan to optimise and have potential applications in clinical practice. Such non-invasive methods can be measure in human body fluids, for example, urine or serum: Cytokeratin fragments (CYFRA 21.1), Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 (ERCC1), Tumour Protein p53 (Tp53), Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3), Tumor-Associated Trypsin Inhibitor (TATI).
  • 650
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Prostate Cancer Liquid Biopsy Biomarkers
Prostate cancer biomarkers can be measured in urine, blood or tissue. A variety of tests that analyse patients' biomarkers have been developed to improve diagnosis, prognosis and to help stratify individual's risk of prostate cancers. Liquid biopsy biomarkers are easy-to-use and non-invasive. They guide the decision-making process, determine whether the patient requires treatment or can be monitored under active surveillance, and help choose the best treatment option.
  • 562
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disease that presents an estimated incidence of 1.3 cases per million per year, with a prevalence of 15.9 cases per million. It is characterized by hemolysis, bone marrow dysfunction with peripheral blood cytopenia, hypercoagulability, thrombosis, renal impairment and arterial and pulmonary hypertension. Hemolysis and subsequent hemosiderin accumulation in tubular epithelium cells induce tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis.
  • 542
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Innate Immunity in CKD
Emerging studies suggest that unsolved inflammation will progressively transit into kidney fibrosis that finally results in an irreversible end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing studies have suggested pathogenic roles of innate immunity in the kidney diseases. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may uncover a novel therapeutic strategy for ESRD.
  • 279
  • 06 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Fabry Nephropathy
Fabry disease (FD; OMIM#301500) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with inherited or de novo disease causing variants in the α-galactosidase A gene (GLA; OMIM*300644). Reduced or even absent α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A; EC activity leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipids with terminal α-D-galactosyl residues, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) in plasma, urine and different organ systems, mainly cardiac, renal, endothelial and neuronal. The major physiological source of Gb3 is globoside, a glycolipid of erythrocytes and cells membranes found in different tissues. Kidneys are very frequently affected in patients with Fabry disease regardless of gender. Most important manifestations of Fabry nephropathy are proteinuria and slowly progressive chronic kidney disease, which can in some cases lead to end stage renal disease.
  • 255
  • 27 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Glucose-Lowering Medications in Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common underestimated complication of diabetes mellitus that affects more than 50% of people with diabetes. Diabetes dramatically raises the risk of developing ED by 2.5-fold. Despite that several studies have explained the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the generation of erectile failure, few studies to date have described the efficacy of glucose-lowering medications in the restoration of normal sexual activity. Herein, we will present current knowledge about the main starters of the pathophysiology of diabetic ED and explore the role of different anti-diabetes therapies in the potential remission of ED, highlighting specific pathways whose activation or inhibition could be fundamental for sexual care in a diabetes setting.
  • 225
  • 28 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Anti-Inflammatory Agents in Prostate Cancer
Chronic inflammation is a major cause of human cancers. The environmental factors, such as microbiome, dietary components, and obesity, provoke chronic inflammation in the prostate, which promotes cancer development and progression. Crosstalk between immune cells and cancer cells enhances the secretion of intercellular signaling molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby orchestrating the generation of inflammatory microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play pivotal roles in inflammation-associated cancer by inhibiting effective anti-tumor immunity. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, metformin, and statins, have potential application in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory immunity-targeted therapies may provide novel strategies to treat patients with cancer. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents are expected to suppress the “vicious cycle” created by immune and cancer cells and inhibit cancer progression. This review has explored the immune cells that facilitate prostate cancer development and progression, with particular focus on the application of anti-inflammatory agents for both chemoprevention and therapeutic approach in prostate cancer.
  • 212
  • 30 Apr 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
The Applications of Microphysiological Systems in Biomedicine: Impact on Urologic and Orthopaedic Research
Microphysiological systems (MPSs) are in vitro models that can incorporate dynamic stimuli such as flow, pressure and contraction in cell culture, enabling the formation of cellular architectures and retrieving physiological function often absent in conventional 2D-cell culture. MPS applications saw a substantial growth in recent years, drawing attention from industry as a strategy to optimize pre-clinical drug-development purposes, as well as from biomedical research, to fill a gap between in vivo and in vitro models. Several MPS platforms are now available and are employed in the development of bone and kidney complex systems for urologic and orthopaedic research. These advances have enabled, for example, the in vitro modelling of bone regeneration and renal drug secretion, and have dramatic potential to improve research into both orthopaedic and urology cancers. 
  • 208
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the leading nosocomial infections in the world and have led to the extensive study of various strategies to prevent infection. However, despite an abundance of anti-infection materials having been studied over the last forty-five years, only a few types have come into clinical use, providing an insignificant reduction in CAUTIs. Marine resources have emerged as an unexplored area of opportunity offering huge potential in discovering novel bioactive materials to combat human diseases. To date, some marine microbial-derived materials have exhibited potent antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity against a broad spectrum of uropathogens (including multidrug-resistant pathogens) that could be potentially used in urinary catheters to eradicate CAUTIs.
  • 185
  • 14 May 2021
Topic Review
Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer and correlates with the aggressiveness of the disease. PSMA is a promising target for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and theranostics in prostate cancer patients validated in recent prospective trials. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing to define the role of PSMA targeting radioligands in different settings and to evaluate the potential of other PSMA-based therapeutic modalities in prostate cancer.
  • 163
  • 11 May 2021
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