Topic Review
Epigenetic Associations between lncRNA/circRNA, miRNA
The three major members of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), named microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Recently, the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulation model described lncRNA/circRNA as a sponge for miRNAs to indirectly regulate miRNA downstream target genes. Accumulating evidence has indicated that ceRNA regulatory networks are associated with biological processes in HCC, including cancer cell growth, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and chemoresistance.
  • 837
  • 29 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Bladder Cancer Biomarkers
The high occurrence of bladder cancer and its tendency to recur combined with lifelong surveillance make the treatment of superficial bladder cancer one of the most expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, carcinoma in situ often leads to muscle invasion with an unfavourable prognosis. Currently, invasive methods including cystoscopy and cytology remain a gold standard. The aim is to find biomarkers with the best specificity and sensitivity, allowing the treatment plan to optimise and have potential applications in clinical practice. Such non-invasive methods can be measure in human body fluids, for example, urine or serum: Cytokeratin fragments (CYFRA 21.1), Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 (ERCC1), Tumour Protein p53 (Tp53), Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3), Tumor-Associated Trypsin Inhibitor (TATI).
  • 819
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Autotaxin (ATX) in Breast Cancer
       This entry deals with the role of the secreted enzyme, autotaxin (ATX), in the progression of breast cancer. ATX produces lysophosphatidate (LPA), which signals through six G-protein coupled receptors, promoting tumor growth, metastasis, immune evasion and survival from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Many cancer cells produce ATX, but breast cancer cells express little ATX. Instead, in breast cancer, ATX is produced by tumor-associated stroma. Breast tumors are also surrounded by adipose tissue, which is a major bodily source of ATX. In mice, a high-fat human type diet increases ATX production in adipocytes. ATX production in obesity is also increased because of low-level inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue. This increased ATX secretion and consequent LPA signaling is associated with decreased adiponectin production, which results in adverse metabolic profiles and glucose homeostasis. Increased ATX production by inflamed adipose tissue could contribute to the association between obesity and breast cancer. This would result from the cross talk between breast tumors and adjacent adipose tissue. Breast tumors produce inflammatory mediators that stimulate ATX transcription in adipocytes adjacent to the tumors. This drives a feedforward inflammatory cycle since increased LPA signaling increases the production of more inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 resulting in more ATX secretion. This cycle is typical of a wound healing response, which in the case of cancers become maladaptive. Thus, inhibiting ATX activity derived from adipocytes and/or tumor stromal cells has implications as an adjuvant for breast cancer treatments by attenuating the inflammatory cycle. Targeting ATX activity and LPA signaling could potentially increase the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy independently of the breast cancer type because most ATX is not derived from breast cancer cells. Blocking ATX activity and LPA signaling could also decrease morbidity from radiation-induced fibrosis.
  • 777
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Tumor Spheroids and Organoids
Understanding and investigating tumors is carried out by researchers using a number of different methods. One exciting and promising area is 3D tumor models including spheriod and organoid models. They act in similar ways to tumors which means we can use them to gather important information. This ranges from the way tumors react through to how different treatments may work on tumors. Ultimately they may help guide us towards the types of drugs and therapies that could be used to treat tumors. This work gives an overview of these technologies, the types of 3D models available and how they can be used to improve treatments and their applications in personalized medicine. 
  • 768
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides
Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) is a variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a heterogeneous group of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. HMF and classic (erythematous patch/plaque) Mycosis Fungoides (MF) display contrasting clinical characteristics: (i) HMF presents with light colored to achromic patches, as opposed to classic MF, which presents with erythematous scaly patches, plaques, tumors or erythroderma, (ii) HMF primarily affects individuals with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes IV-VI), while classic MF affects mostly Caucasians, (iii) HMF is commonly seen in pediatric/adolescents and young adults, whereas classic MF is more prevalent in elderly individuals, and (iv) the predominant malignant cells in HMF are CD8+T-cells, as opposed to CD4+T-cells in classic MF. Our recent review paper highlights that active antitumor immune response, specifically a Th1/cytotoxic antitumor immune response seen robustly in HMF, is likely responsible for the differential behavior between these two MF variants. Furthermore, we propose that the hypopigmentation (clinical sign) may serve as a surrogate marker for the presence of antitumor immune response and may portend better prognosis. 
  • 750
  • 21 Oct 2020
Topic Review
GADD45A
The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 alpha (GADD45A) gene encodes a 165 aa protein localized in the nucleus, whose level is highest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, with a substantial reduction in S. The involvement of GADD45A in the cell cycle regulation and interaction with other proteins underline its function in the cellular DNA damage response and maintaining genomic stability, which, in turn, determines its high potential in cancer transformation. The protective role of GADD45A in DNA damage-induced tumorigenesis is the main biological function of this protein, but exact mechanism of it is not known. Emerging evidence suggests that GADD45A may be important in breast cancer and several molecular pathways were reported to underline this importance, including Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p38. GADD45A may play a tumor-suppressor role by induction of senescence and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, it was also shown that GADD45A may promote tumorigenesis via the GSK3 β (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta)/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, GADD45A may function as either a tumor promotor or suppressor, depending on the kind of oncogenic stress, and these two functions are mediated by different signaling pathways.
  • 733
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous cells derived from bone marrow. They are precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages and/or granulocytes. They have the ability to significantly inhibit immune cell responses.
  • 731
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Molecular Mechanisms of Homologous Recombination
Homologous recombination (HR) is a fundamental evolutionarily conserved process that plays prime role(s) in genome stability maintenance through DNA repair and through the protection and resumption of arrested replication forks. HR promotes the exchange between homologous DNA sequences resulting in a novel combination of the genetic material. Therefore, HR is essential in genome stability maintenance but also plays an important role in genome diversity; such as in the case of meiosis. Many HR genes are deregulated in cancer cells. Notably, the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, two important HR players, are the most frequently mutated genes in familial breast and ovarian cancer. 
  • 695
  • 28 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Antibody Conjugated Polymeric Nanoparticles
Nanoparticles (NPs) are promising drug delivery systems (DDS) for identifying and treating cancer. Active targeting NPs can be generated by conjugation with ligands that bind overexpressed or mutant cell surface receptors on target cells that are poorly or not even expressed on normal cells. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of the NPs occurs and the drug is released inside the cell or in the surrounding tissue due to the bystander effect. Antibodies are the most frequently used ligands to actively target tumor cells. In this context, antibody-based therapies have been extensively used in HER2+ breast cancer.
  • 678
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Microbiota for HPV Infection
The microbiome is able to modulate immune responses, alter the physiology of the human organism, and increase the risk of viral infections and development of diseases such as cancer. Herein, we address changes in the cervical microbiota as potential biomarkers to identify the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) development and invasive cervical cancer in the context of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • 671
  • 30 Oct 2020
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