Topic Review
Halitosis, also known as fetor ex ore, bad breath or oral malodor, is a common disorder meaning unpleasant smell from the mouth. Halitosis is a common problem that manifests as an unpleasant and disgusting odor emanating from the mouth[1]. Malodor is mainly caused by putrefactive actions of microorganisms on endogenous or exogenous proteins and peptides. Oral malodor is an embarrassing condition that affects a large percentage of the human population. This condition often results in nervousness, humiliation, and social difficulties, such as the inability to approach people and speak to them[2][3][4][5][6].
  • 536
  • 11 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Machine Learning in Gastroenterology/Endoscopy
Over time, machine learning (ML), a component of artificial intelligence (AI), has been implemented in a variety of medical specialties, such as radiology, pathology, gastroenterology, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, and orthopedics, with the goal of improving the quality of healthcare and medical diagnosis. In clinical gastroenterology practice, due to technological developments, estimates show that AI could have the ability to create a predictive model; for instance, it could develop an ML model that can stratify the risk in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, establish the existence of a specific gastrointestinal disease, define the best treatment, and offer prognosis and prediction of the therapeutic response. In this context, by applying ML or deep learning (DL) (AI using neural networks), clinical management in gastroenterology can begin to focus on more personalized treatment centered on the patient and based on making the best individual decisions, instead of relying mostly on guidelines developed for a specific condition. Moreover, the goal of implementing these AI-based algorithms is to increase the possibility of diagnosing a gastrointestinal disease at early stage or the ability to predict the development of a particular condition in advance. Because both AI and gastroenterology encompass many subdomains, the interaction between them might take on various forms. In recent years, we have witnessed a large explosion of research in attempts to improve various fields of gastroenterology, such as endoscopy, hepatology, inflammatory bowel diseases, and many others, with the aid of ML. We also note that, because of the requirement to diagnose more patients with gastrointestinal cancers at an early stage of the disease, which is associated with curative treatment and better prognosis, many studies were developed to address improvement of the detection of these tumors with the aid of AI. The term ML, introduced for the first time in 1959 by Arthur Samuel from the IBM company, refers to an IT domain whereby a computer system can acquire the ability to “learn” by using data without specific programming and can therefore develop a predictive mathematical algorithm based on input data, using recognition of “features”. The ML “model” is subsequently able to adapt to new situations in which it becomes able to predict and make decisions.
  • 512
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Acacia Catechu Willd. for CRC
The research for innovative treatments against colon adenocarcinomas is still a great challenge. Acacia catechu Willd. heartwood extract (AC) has health-promoting qualities, especially at gastrointestinal level. This study characterized AC for its catechins content and investigates the apoptotic-enhancing effect in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, along with its ability to spare healthy tissue. Results showed that AC  induced an increase in apoptotic cells and ROS formation, reduction in mitochondria membrane potential as well as increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity. AC did not affect rat ileum and colon rings viability and functionality, suggesting its safe profile toward healthy tissue. The present findings outline the potential of AC for colon cancer treatment.
  • 388
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Molecular Detection of Colorectal Cancer
Drug-specific therapeutic approaches for colorectal cancer (CRC) have contributed to a significant improvement in the health status of patients. However, a great need to improve personalization of treatments based on genetic and epigenetic tumor profiles to maximize quality and efficacy while limiting cytotoxicity remains. Currently, CEA and CA 19-9 are the only validated blood biomarkers in clinical practice. For this reason, laboratories are trying to identify new specific prognostic and, more importantly, predictive biomarkers for CRC patient profiles. Thus, the unique landscape of personalized biomarker data should have a clinical impact on CRC treatment strategies and molecular genetic screening tests should become the standard method for CRC diagnosis, as well as detection of disease progression.
  • 385
  • 30 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The conventional approach to IBD aims to induce and maintain clinical remission free of corticosteroids, thus minimizing the impact on quality of life.(1) Currently, corticosteroids, sulfasalazine, mesalamine (5-ASA), and immunomodulators are treatment options for patients with IBD. Studies indicate that a substantial proportion of patients do not fully respond to conventional treatment for IBD or that its efficacy wanes over time.(2) Corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness rates range from 8.9% to 25% in individuals with IBD.(3, 4) Identifying safe and effective therapeutic agents for complementary therapy remains an unmet need for these patients. Curcumin also acts by inhibiting the activity of pro-inflammatory proteins such as activated protein-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, signal translators, and transcription activators, as well as the expression of b-catenin, cyclooxygenase 2, 5-lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform, which play a key role in inflammation.(5) In addition, it acts by blocking the binding between TNF-α and its receptor, preventing the perpetuation of inflammation caused by this cytokine.(6) Curcumin's excellent anti-inflammatory profile makes it a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of IBD. 
  • 368
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Rheumatoid Arthritis and Prevotella copri
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease caused by several factors, which have only been partially identified. Globally approximately 0.24% of people are affected by RA, with women being more affected than men. The gastrointestinal tract is an essential getaway for the intake of favorable and harmful microbes and their metabolites through food and drinks. The imbalance of gut microbiota can cause gut dysbiosis, which is caused by an abundance of Prevotella copri. In recent years there have been reports citing Prevotella copri as the causative organism for RA, but there also have been reports contradicting the above findings. This topical review attempts to bring the two viewpoints together and find common ground for a rational hypothesis.
  • 359
  • 30 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Magnesium Oxide in Constipation
Magnesium oxide has been widely used as an osmotic laxative for a long time especially in East Asia. 
  • 336
  • 04 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Psychogastroenterology focuses on how psychosocial factors play a role in gut diseases. Psychogastroenterologists are clinicians, such as psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, who work in integrative or multidisciplinary care of patients with gastrointestinal disorders. The role of this field has been ranging from suggested prevention, a cure, to a Band-Aid for gut disorders.
  • 330
  • 07 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Colorectal Adenomas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant disease with an incidence of over 1.8 million new cases per year worldwide. CRC outcome is closely related to the respective stage of CRC and is more favorable at less advanced stages. Detection of early colorectal adenomas is the key to survival. In spite of implemented screening programs showing efficiency in the detection of early precancerous lesions and CRC in asymptomatic patients, a significant number of patients are still diagnosed in advanced stages. Research on CRC accomplished during the last decade has improved our understanding of the etiology and development of colorectal adenomas and revealed weaknesses in the general approach to their detection and elimination. Recent studies seek to find a reliable non-invasive biomarker detectable even in the blood.
  • 314
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Leaky Gut Syndrome
Leaky gut syndrome- is a medical condition characterized by increased intestinal permeability which may cause chronic inflammation and contributes to pathogenesis of wide range of diseases. According to the hypothesis of leaky gut syndrome, increased intestinal permeability enables antigens to cross intestinal barrier and absorb into the bloodstream consequently trigger the immune system and cause systemic reactions. Although LGS is very popular in alternative medicine circles, there is still little evidence to support hypothesis that it is a direct cause of any widespread problems.  
  • 311
  • 25 Nov 2020
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