Topic Review
Okara and Gut
Okara is a white-yellow fibrous residue consisting of the insoluble fraction of the soybean seeds remaining after extraction of the aqueous fraction during the production of tofu and soymilk, and is generally considered a waste product. It is packed with a significant number of proteins, isoflavones, soluble and insoluble fibers, soyasaponins, and other mineral elements, which are all attributed with health merits. With the increasing production of soy beverages, huge quantities of this by-product are produced annually, which poses significant disposal problems and financial issues for producers. Extensive studies have been done on the biological activities, nutritional values, and chemical composition of okara as well as its potential utilization. Owing to its peculiar rich fiber composition and low cost of production, okara might be potentially useful in the food industry as a functional ingredient or good raw material and could be used as a dietary supplement to prevent varied ailments such as prevention of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, as well as to stimulate the growth of intestinal microbes and production of microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites), since gut dysbiosis (imbalanced microbiota) has been implicated in the progression of several complex diseases.
  • 1760
  • 31 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Secretory IgA
Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the dominant antibody class in mucosal secretions, it is also present in saliva and breast milk. The majority of plasma cells producing SIgA are located within mucosal membranes lining the intestines, airway and reproductive tracts, as well as mammary gland. SIgA protects against the adhesion of pathogens and their penetration into the mucosal barriers. Moreover, SIgA regulates microbiota composition at mucosa sites and provides local homeostasis.
  • 998
  • 17 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Hereditary Hemochromatosis
The environment and the human genome are closely entangled and many genetic variations that occur in human populations are the result of adaptive selection to ancestral environmental (mainly dietary) conditions. However, the selected mutations may become maladaptive when environmental conditions change, thus becoming candidates for diseases. Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a potentially lethal disease leading to iron accumulation mostly due to mutations in the HFE gene. Indeed, homozygosity for the C282Y HFE mutation is associated with the primary iron overload phenotype. However, both penetrance of the C282Y variant and the clinical manifestation of the disease are extremely variable, suggesting that other genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of HH, as well as, and in its progression to end-stage liver diseases. Alcohol consumption and dietary habits may impact on the phenotypic expression of HFE-related hemochromatosis. Indeed, dietary components and bioactive molecules can affect iron status both directly by modulating its absorption during digestion and indirectly by the epigenetic modification of genes involved in its uptake, storage and recycling. Thus, the premise of this review is to discuss how environmental pressures led to the selection of HFE mutations and whether nutritional and lifestyle interventions may exert beneficial effects on HH outcomes and comorbidities.
  • 973
  • 13 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Dietary Fibre from Virgin Sugarcane
Prebiotic dietary fibre (DF) has gained significant research attention owing to its reported potential in conferring health benefits through modulating gut microbiota composition and their metabolic activities. Complex dietary fibres from whole-plant sources are becoming recognised as vital parameters in influencing the gut microbial diversity in contrast to isolated or purified DF forms. In this entry, we review the recent evidence from in-vivo and clinical studies to support the significant prebiotic capacity of whole-plant virgin processed sugarcane fibre in countering gut inflammation and undesirable digestive symptoms.
  • 920
  • 16 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Gastrointestinal Diseases in Primary Immunodeficiencies
In recent years, the incidence of immune-mediated gastrointestinal disorders, including celiac disease (CeD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is increasingly growing worldwide. It is well established that primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) exhibit gastrointestinal manifestations and mimic other diseases, including CeD and IBD. The most common PIDs in adults are the selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) and the common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, some differences concerning diagnostics and management between enteropathy/colitis in PIDs, as compared to idiopathic forms of CeD/IBD, have been described. There is an ongoing discussion whether CeD and IBD in CVID patients should be considered a true CeD and IBD or just CeD-like and IBD-like diseases. This review addresses the current state of the art of the most common primary immunodeficiencies in adults and co-occurring CeD and IBD.
  • 919
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continue to cause substantial morbidity and massive productivity loss globally. IBD is more common among the productive generation (age group of <30yrs) and affects their quality of life. A single mechanism responsible for IBD is difficult to determine due to the complex interplay of multiple factors including host’s genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The relapsing nature of IBD demands repeated treatment implicating a substantial financial burden to individual patients and the concerned healthcare system, especially in developing nations. This review focuses on the causes of IBD,risk factors, current treatment options and challenges, the role played by the natural products in IBD health care; and situate these natural products within the current biodiscovery research agenda, including the applications of drug discovery techniques and the search for next generation drugs to treat IBD.
  • 914
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Gastrointestinal Disorders and Metabolic Syndrome
Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, which include gastrointestinal reflux disease, gastric ulceration, inflammatory bowel disease, and other functional GI disorders, have become prevalent in a large part of the world population. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is cluster of disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, and is associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Gut dysbiosis is one of the contributing factors to the pathogenesis of both GI disorder and MS, and restoration of normal flora can provide a potential protective approach in both these conditions. Bioactive dietary components are known to play a significant role in the maintenance of health and wellness, as they have the potential to modify risk factors for a large number of serious disorders. Different classes of functional dietary components, such as dietary fibers, probiotics, prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and spices, possess positive impacts on human health and can be useful as alternative treatments for GI disorders and metabolic dysregulation, as they can modify the risk factors associated with these pathologies. Their regular intake in sufficient amounts also aids in the restoration of normal intestinal flora, resulting in positive regulation of insulin signaling, metabolic pathways and immune responses, and reduction of low-grade chronic inflammation. This review is designed to focus on the health benefits of bioactive dietary components, with the aim of preventing the development or halting the progression of GI disorders and MS through an improvement of the most important risk factors including gut dysbiosis.
  • 894
  • 22 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Melatonin and Liver Cancer
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an indoleamine with beneficial effects in a broad number of tumors, including the primary liver cancers hepatocarcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Among them, melatonin has shown to modulate different cancer-associated processes and enhance drug efficacy against HCC and CCA. Therefore, melatonin has a potential role in improving the current therapeutic landscape in these liver tumors.
  • 693
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Mesenteric Fibrosis
Authors: Anna Koumarianou, Krystallenia I. Alexandraki, Göran Wallin, Gregory Kaltsas and Kosmas Daskalakis. Objective: Mesenteric fibrosis (MF) constitutes an underrecognized sequela in patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (SI-NENs), often complicating the disease clinical course. The aim of the present systematic review was to provide an update in evolving aspects of MF pathogenesis and its clinical management in SI-NENs. Search strategy: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology. Results: Complex and dynamic interactions are present in the microenvironment of tumor deposits in the mesentery. Serotonin, as well as the signaling pathways of certain growth factors play a pivotal, yet not fully elucidated role in the pathogenesis of MF. Clinically, MF often results in significant morbidity by causing either acute complications, such as intestinal obstruction and/or acute ischemia or more chronic conditions involving abdominal pain, venous stasis, malabsorption and malnutrition. Conclusions: Surgical resection in patients with locoregional disease only or symptomatic distant stage disease, as well as palliative minimally invasive interventions in advanced inoperable cases seem clinically meaningful, whereas currently available systemic and/or targeted treatments do not unequivocally affect the development of MF in SI-NENs. Increased awareness and improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MF in SI-NENs may provide better diagnostic and predictive tools for its timely recognition and intervention and also facilitates the development of agents targeting MF.
  • 671
  • 22 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Diet-Derived Phytochemicals Modulate the Gut Microbiome
Diet-derived phytochemicals modulate microbiome that is found to offer significant protective effects against colorectal cancer (CRC). The person’s lifestyle and the eating pattern have significant impacts on the CRC in a positive and/or negative way. Phytochemicals are a concoction of various bioactive compounds directing various cell signaling pathways that altered gut microbiota composition. This may support to destroy malignant cells with minor risks of emerging drug resistance. The effectiveness of CRC can be reduced by the use of various dietary phytochemicals or modulating microbiome that reduces or inverses the progression of a tumor, which could be promising and efficient in reducing the burden of CRC. Phytochemicals with modulation of gut microbiome continue to be auspicious investigations in CRC through noticeable anti-tumorigenic effects, which provides new openings for cancer inhibition and treatment.
  • 668
  • 29 Jun 2021
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