Topic Review
Low-Dose Alcohol Consumption on Chronic Liver Disease
Although alcohol is one of the most important etiologic agents in the development of chronic liver disease worldwide, also recognized as a promoter of carcinogenesis, several studies have shown a beneficial effect of moderate consumption in terms of reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Whether this benefit is also present in patients with liver disease due to other causes (viral, metabolic, and others) is still debated. Although there is no clear evidence emerging from guidelines and scientific literature, total abstention from drinking is usually prescribed in clinical practice.
  • 136
  • 06 Mar 2024
Topic Review
GLP-1RA-Associated Side Effects and Potential Concerns
Amidst the obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) epidemics, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) stand out as a promising therapeutic ally, achieving notable success in glycemic control and weight management. While GLP-1RAs’ positive clinical outcomes are commendable, they introduce significant gastrointestinal (GI) challenges, emphasizing the pivotal role of gastroenterologists in understanding and managing these implications. Physicians should be vigilant of potential complications if endoscopy is indicated and considered.
  • 205
  • 05 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Dysbiosis in Gut Microbiotas
Dysbiosis refers to a disruption of the symbiotic relationship between the microbiota and the host, and it can contribute to various chronic diseases both within and outside the gut. These diseases include obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, chronic liver disease, neurological disorders, and cancer. Several factors can influence the composition of the microbiota and increase the risk of dysbiosis. These factors include diet, environmental factors, stress, aging, genetic factors, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. 
  • 249
  • 05 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Benefits of Adjuvant/Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
In addition to established evidence of the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), evidence of the effects of neoadjuvant treatments (NATs), including chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, has also been accumulating. Recent results from prospective studies and meta-analyses suggest that NATs may be beneficial not only for borderline resectable PDAC, but also for resectable PDAC, by increasing the likelihood of successful R0 resection, decreasing the likelihood of the development of lymph node metastasis, and improving recurrence-free and overall survival. In addition, response to NAT may be informative for predicting the clinical course after preoperative NAT followed by surgery; in this way, the postoperative treatment strategy can be revised based on the effect of NAT and the post-neoadjuvant therapy/surgery histopathological findings.
  • 337
  • 04 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Diabetic Gastroparesis
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is a debilitating gastrointestinal disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying in individuals with diabetes mellitus, particularly type 1 and long-standing type 2 diabetes. This condition, although not widely known, significantly impacts the quality of life of affected individuals. The symptoms of DGP, including early satiety, excessive fullness after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, abdominal pain, and vomiting, stem from the slowed or stalled movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine.
  • 413
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Endoscopic Transpapillary/Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Gallbladder Drainage of Acute Cholecystitis
A percutaneous cholecystostomy tube (PCT) is the conventionally favored nonoperative intervention for treating acute cholecystitis. However, PCT is beset by high adverse event rates, need for scheduled reintervention, and inadvertent dislodgement, as well as patient dissatisfaction with a percutaneous drain. Recent advances in endoscopic therapy involve the implementation of endoscopic transpapillary drainage (ETP-GBD) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD), which are increasingly preferred over PCT due to their favorable technical and clinical success combined with lower complication rates. 
  • 139
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Influence of Ultra-Processed Food on Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease characterised by the development of malignant tumours in the colon or rectum; it is considered the most common cancer in women, and up to 50% of cases can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle. Nutritional habits are related to its appearance, and the trend of an increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) has led to a surge in the incidence of CRC.
  • 107
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Diet and Nutritional Interventions in Early Life
The infant gut microbiome plays a key role in the healthy development of the human organism and appears to be influenced by dietary practices through multiple pathways. First, maternal diet during pregnancy and infant nutrition significantly influence the infant gut microbiota. Moreover, breastfeeding fosters the proliferation of beneficial bacteria, while formula feeding increases microbial diversity. The timing of introducing solid foods also influences gut microbiota composition. In preterm infants the gut microbiota development is influenced by multiple factors, including the time since birth and the intake of breast milk, and interventions such as probiotics and prebiotics supplementation show promising results in reducing morbidity and mortality in this population.
  • 125
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Circulating Biomarkers Involved in Chronic Pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is the end-stage of continuous inflammation and fibrosis in the pancreas evolving from acute- to recurrent acute-, early, and, finally, end-stage CP. Currently, prevention is the only way to reduce disease burden. In this setting, early detection is of great importance. Due to the anatomy and risks associated with direct sampling from pancreatic tissue, most of the information on the human pancreas arises from circulating biomarkers thought to be involved in pancreatic pathophysiology or injury. 
  • 231
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Pancreatic Walled-off Necrosis Management
Necrotizing pancreatitis is a complex clinical condition burdened with significant morbidity and mortality. In recent years, the huge progress of interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has allowed a shift in the management of pancreatic necrotic collections from surgical/percutaneous approaches to mini-invasive endoscopic internal drainage and debridement procedures. The development of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs), devices specifically dedicated to transmural EUS interventions, further prompted the diffusion of such techniques.
  • 101
  • 27 Feb 2024
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