Topic Review
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a globally prevalent chronic liver disease caused by chronic or binge consumption of alcohol. Metabolites and byproducts generated during alcohol metabolism cause liver damage, leading to ALD via several mechanisms, such as impairing lipid metabolism, intensifying inflammatory reactions, and inducing fibrosis.
  • 1.7K
  • 24 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Lipopolysaccharide in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are bacterial surface glycolipids, produced by Gram-negative bacteria. LPS is known to determine acute inflammatory reactions, particularly in the context of sepsis. However, LPS can also trigger chronic inflammation. In this case, the source of LPS is not an external infection, but rather an increase in endogenous production, which is usually sustained by gut microbiota (GM), and LPS contained in food. The first site in which LPS can exert its inflammatory action is the gut: both GM and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) are influenced by LPS and shift towards an inflammatory pattern. The changes in GM and GALT induced by LPS are quite similar to the ones seen in IBD: GM loses diversity, while GALT T regulatory (Tregs) lymphocytes are reduced in number, with an increase in Th17 and Th1 lymphocytes. Additionally, the innate immune system is triggered, through the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, while the epithelium is directly damaged, further triggering inflammation.
  • 1.7K
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Halitosis
Halitosis, also known as fetor ex ore, bad breath or oral malodor, is a common disorder meaning unpleasant smell from the mouth. Halitosis is a common problem that manifests as an unpleasant and disgusting odor emanating from the mouth[1]. Malodor is mainly caused by putrefactive actions of microorganisms on endogenous or exogenous proteins and peptides. Oral malodor is an embarrassing condition that affects a large percentage of the human population. This condition often results in nervousness, humiliation, and social difficulties, such as the inability to approach people and speak to them[2][3][4][5][6].
  • 1.6K
  • 11 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Phlegm Syndrome
Phlegm is defined as a viscous and turbid pathological factor that is formed due to an imbalance in body fluid in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) and accumulates in certain parts of the body as the form of condensation.
  • 1.6K
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Gall Stone Dissolving Plants
Medicinal plants have been known for thousands of years and are highly esteemed throughout the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention and cure of diseases. There is large number of population suffers from gall stone. Gall stones problem is now being increased significantly due to changes in living style and conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its, cultural acceptability, efficacy, safety and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs.
  • 1.6K
  • 15 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Melatonin and Liver Cancer
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an indoleamine with beneficial effects in a broad number of tumors, including the primary liver cancers hepatocarcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Among them, melatonin has shown to modulate different cancer-associated processes and enhance drug efficacy against HCC and CCA. Therefore, melatonin has a potential role in improving the current therapeutic landscape in these liver tumors.
  • 1.5K
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Environmental and Lifestyle Risk Factors in Gallbladder Carcinogenesis
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm that in an early stage is generally asymptomatic and, in most cases, is diagnosed in advanced stages with a very low life expectancy because there is no curative treatment. Therefore, understanding the early carcinogenic mechanisms of this pathology is crucial to proposing preventive strategies for this cancer. The main risk factor is the presence of gallstones, which are associated with some environmental factors such as a sedentary lifestyle and a high-fat diet. Other risk factors such as autoimmune disorders and bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections have also been described. All these factors can generate a long-term inflammatory state characterized by the persistent activation of the immune system, the frequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the constant production of reactive oxygen species that result in a chronic damage/repair cycle, subsequently inducing the loss of the normal architecture of the gallbladder mucosa that leads to the development of GBC.
  • 1.4K
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Carbohydrate Maldigestion and Intolerance
When malabsorbed carbohydrates reach the colon, they are fermented by colonic bacteria, with the production of short-chain fatty acids and gas lowering colonic pH. The appearance of diarrhoea or symptoms of flatulence depends in part on the balance between the production and elimination of these fermentation products. Different studies have shown that there are no differences in the frequency of sugar malabsorption between patients with irritable bowel disease (IBS) and healthy controls; however, the severity of symptoms after a sugar challenge is higher in patients than in controls. 
  • 1.4K
  • 19 May 2022
Topic Review
Training Simulators for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the gold standard in the detection and treatment of early and advanced GI cancers. However, conventional endoscopic techniques are technically demanding and require visual-spatial skills and significant hands-on experience. GI endoscopy simulators represent a valid solution to allow doctors to practice in a pre-clinical scenario.
  • 1.4K
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Dyspepsia in Diabetic Patients
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease, and represents an important public health burden worldwide. Together with cardiovascular, renal and neurological complications, many patients with diabetes present with gastrointestinal symptoms, which configure the so-called diabetic enteropathy. 
  • 1.3K
  • 11 May 2021
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