Topic Review
Wound-Microenvironment Engineering
In patients with comorbidities, a large number of wounds become chronic, representing an overwhelming economic burden for healthcare systems. Engineering the microenvironment is a paramount trend to activate cells and burst-healing mechanisms. The extrusion bioprinting of advanced dressings was performed with novel composite bioinks made by blending adipose decellularized extracellular matrix with plasma and human dermal fibroblasts. Rheological and microstructural assessments of the composite hydrogels supported post-printing cell viability and proliferation over time.
  • 111
  • 16 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Wound Healing Material
Dermal wound healing describes the progressive repair and recalcitrant mechanism of damaged skin, and eventually, reformatting and reshaping the skin. Many probiotics, nutritional supplements, metal nanoparticles, composites, skin constructs, polymers, and so forth have been associated with the improved healing process of wounds. The exact mechanism of material-cellular interaction is a point of immense importance, particularly in pathological conditions such as diabetes. Bioengineered alternative agents will likely continue to dominate the outpatient and perioperative management of chronic, recalcitrant wounds as new products continue to cut costs and improve the wound healing process. 
  • 165
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Vulvar and Vaginal Melanomas
Melanomas of the skin are poorly circumscribed lesions, very frequently asymptomatic but unfortunately with a continuous growing incidence. In this landscape, one can distinguish melanomas originating in the mucous membranes and located in areas not exposed to the sun, namely the vulvo-vaginal melanomas. By contrast with cutaneous melanomas, the incidence of these types of melanomas is constant, being diagnosed in females in their late sixties. While hairy skin and glabrous skin melanomas of the vulva account for 5% of all cancers located in the vulva, melanomas of the vagina and urethra are particularly rare conditions. The location in areas less accessible to periodic inspection determines their diagnosis in advanced stages, often metastatic. 
  • 167
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D, Sun Exposure and Skin Cancer
The current vitamin D deficiency epidemic is accompanied by an increase in endemic skin cancer. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure (neither artificial nor natural) is not the ideal source to synthesize vitamin D. There is conflicting epidemiological evidence regarding vitamin D, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and cutaneous melanoma (CMM), confounded by the effect of sun exposure and other factors. 
  • 91
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common type of skin malignancies among humans (particularly fair-skinned populations of European descent) and its incidence rates have been on the rise globally for decades [1]. The best defined role of vitamin D in humans is in supporting the normal development and maintenance of bone tissues and in regulating calcium metabolism [7,8]. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role in many fundamental biological processes (e.g., cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and modulation of the immune system) [9] implicated in carcinogenesis. 
  • 93
  • 26 Oct 2021
Topic Review
UV Radiation in DNA Damage and Repair
Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation on human skin can lead to mutations in DNA, photoaging, suppression of the immune system, and other damage up to skin cancer (melanoma, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma).
  • 172
  • 27 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Utility of Military Teledermoscopy in Pandemic Era
Skin disease remains a common complaint among deployed service members. To mitigate the limited supply of dermatologists in the U.S. Military Health System, teledermatology has been harnessed as a specialist extender platform, allowing for online consultations in remote deployed settings. Operational teledermatology has played a critical role in reductions of medical evacuations with significant cost-savings. When direct in-person lesion visualization is unattainable, teledermoscopy can be harnessed as an effective diagnostic tool to distinguish suspicious skin lesions. Teledermoscopy has the versatile capacity for streamlined incorporation into the existing asynchronous telemedicine platforms utilized worldwide among deployed U.S. military healthcare providers. In terms of clinical utility, teledermoscopy offers a unique and timely opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy, early detection rates, and prognostic courses for dermatological conditions. Such improvements will further reduce medical evacuations and separations, thereby improving mission readiness and combat effectiveness. As mission goals are safeguarded, associated operational budget costs are also preserved. This innovative, cost-effective technology merits integration into the U.S. Military Health System (MHS).
  • 24
  • 02 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Ultrasound Examination in Nail Apparatus Assessment in Psoriasis
The assessment of psoriatic nail changes in everyday practice is based exclusively on clinical symptoms that do not reflect the entire disease process in the nail apparatus. The use of imaging methods, especially widely available and inexpensive ultrasonography, creates the possibility of additional revealing and assessing grayscale of morphological changes of the ventral nail plate, nail bed, and matrix, as well as the attachment of the finger extensor tendon to the distal phalanx. What is more, it enables the assessment of inflammation severity in the power Doppler technique. A qualitative classification of nail plate morphological changes corresponding to the severity of psoriatic nail changes has been developed so far and attempts are being made to develop a quantitative method to assess not only the presence of changes but also the severity of inflammation. 
  • 238
  • 20 May 2022
Topic Review
Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis Inhibition
Melanin is a widespread natural pigment that is responsible for color in hair, skin, and eyes. It provides protection against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Melanogenesis is the physiological process of melanin formation in which TYR, a copper-dependent enzyme, initiates the first step. Tyrosinase catalyzes the rate-limiting step where L-tyrosine is converted to L-3,4,-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), leading to the eventual formation of the pigment.
  • 517
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
TRPV1 in Skin Diseases
TRPV1 is a nonspecific ion channel highly expressed by cutaneous sensory nerves and other skin cells, including circulating and skin resident immune cells. Understanding the role of TRPV1 in wound healing may inform future TRPV1-targeted therapies to improve healing in impaired and chronic wounds. Many factors contribute to the polymodal nature of TRPV1 channel activation including tetrameric composition, splice variant, accessory protein sensitization or desensitization, activator concentration/coupling, etc.
  • 241
  • 28 Jun 2021
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