Topic Review
7T MRI for Intracranial Vessel Wall Lesions
Intracranial vessel wall lesions are involved in a variety of neurological diseases. The advanced technique 7T MRI provides greater efficacy in the diagnosis of the pathology changes in the vessel wall and helps to identify potential subtle lesions.
  • 124
  • 11 May 2022
Topic Review
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are the only drugs that have demonstrated success in slowing shrinkage (atrophy) of the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain, major areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated brain damage and dementia. The main barrier to taking advantage of this new success in treating, or even preventing, AD is that the old available AChE inhibitors are weak reversible inhibitors that cause intolerable nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea if given in the higher doses needed. A promising new strategy for producing high-level AChE inhibition in the brain as needed for effective treatment of AD is the use of AChE inhibitors that are of a different type, the  irreversible inhibitors. 
  • 1857
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Action Sports
In the last two decades, non-traditional sports activities characterized by elements such as speed, height, and exposure to natural forces knew a rapid increase in global participation. They are generally referred to as action sports (AS), with the terms adventure sports or extreme sports that could be used as interchangeable synonyms.
  • 206
  • 09 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Acute Ischemic Stroke
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following ischemic stroke (IS) contributes to hemorrhagic transformation, brain edema, increased neural dysfunction, secondary injury, and mortality. Brain endothelial cells form a para and transcellular barrier to most blood-borne solutes via tight junctions (TJs) and rare transcytotic vesicles. The prevailing view attributes the destruction of TJs to the resulting BBB damage following IS, recent studies define a stepwise impairment of the transcellular barrier followed by the paracellular barrier which accounts for the BBB leakage in IS. The increased endothelial transcytosis that has been proven to be caveolae-mediated, precedes and is independent of TJs disintegration. Thus, our understanding of post-stroke BBB deficits needs to be revised, these recent findings could provide a conceptual basis for the development of alternative treatment strategies. Presently, our concept of how BBB endothelial transcytosis develops is incomplete and treatment options remain limited. This entry summarizes the cellular structure and biological classification of endothelial transcytosis at the BBB and reviews the related molecular mechanisms. Meanwhile, relevant transcytosis-targeted therapeutic strategies for IS and research entry points are prospected.
  • 219
  • 13 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Algorithm for Dysphagia Screening
Dysphagia is often unrecognized because many people are unfamiliar with symptoms and signs of dysphagia  besides choking during swallowing.  Dysphagia screening is therefore important. A good screening should be a quick process and minimally invasive but can determine the likelihood of dysphagia. Here, an algorithm for dysphagia screening is introduced. The algorithm can be used for people unspecialized in dysphagia.
  • 1883
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Allosteric GABAA Receptor Modulators
Among the mammalian ligand-gated ion channels, the GABAA receptor family comprises the largest family with subunits encoded by 19 different genes. Some of these undergo alternative splicing, and, thereby, increase the variety. Their endogenous ligand known as the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been established as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
  • 190
  • 29 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) has strong connection with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is considered the most common disorder of synucleinopathy, which is characterised by intracellular inclusions of aggregated and misfolded α-syn protein in various brain regions, and the loss of dopaminergic neurons. During the early prodromal phase of PD, synaptic alterations happen before cell death, which is linked to the synaptic accumulation of toxic α-syn specifically in the presynaptic terminals, affecting neurotransmitter release. The oligomers and protofibrils of α-syn are the most toxic species, and their overexpression impairs the distribution and activation of synaptic proteins, such as the SNARE complex, preventing neurotransmitter exocytosis and neuronal synaptic communication. In the last few years, the role of the immune system in PD has been increasingly considered. Microglial and astrocyte activation, the gene expression of proinflammatory factors, and the infiltration of immune cells from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) represent the main features of the inflammatory response. One of the actors of these processes is α-syn accumulation.
  • 233
  • 29 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Alzheimer’s Disease
Many observational and clinical studies have shown that consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols have beneficial effects on various diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Animal and cellular studies have indicated that these polyphenolic compounds contribute to such effects. The representative polyphenols are epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in tea, chlorogenic acids in coffee, resveratrol in wine, and curcumin in curry. The results of human studies have suggested the beneficial effects of consumption of these foods on NDDs, espacially Alzheimer's disease and cellular animal experiments have provided molecular basis to indicate contribution of these representative polyphenols to these effects. This article provides updated information on the effects of these foods and their polyphenols on Alzheimer's disease with discussions on mechanistic aspects of their actions mainly based on the findings derived from basic experiments.
  • 256
  • 20 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Analysis of Running in Wilson’s Disease
Wilson’s disease (WD) is a rare, recessively inherited deficit of copper transportation leading to increased serum levels of free copper and progressive copper intoxication of multiple organs. In the central nervous system (CNS) the basal ganglia, the cerebellum as well as brainstem nuclei are mainly disturbed. A broad spectrum of neurological symptoms as parkinsonian gait, tremor, dysarthria, dystonia, and chorea results.
  • 148
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Antithrombotic Therapy in the Prevention of Stroke
 Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. Antithrombotic therapy, which includes both antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, is a primary medication of choice for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, the choices vary with the need to incorporate evolving, newer information into the clinical scenario. There is also the need to factor in co-morbid medical conditions as well as the cost ramifications for a particular patient as well as compliance with the regimen. 
  • 125
  • 12 Jan 2022
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