Topic Review
Japanese Cedar Pollinosis
The incidence of Japanese cedar pollinosis is increasing significantly in Japan, and a recent survey suggested that about 40% of the population will develop this disease. However, spontaneous remission is rare. The increased incident rate of Japanese cedar pollinosis is a huge issue in Japan. Allergen immunotherapy is the only fundamental treatment that modifies the natural course of allergic rhinitis and provides long-term remission that cannot be induced by general drug therapy. Sublingual immunotherapy for Japanese cedar pollinosis has been developed and has been covered by health insurance since 2014 in Japan. The indication for children was expanded in 2018. Clinical trials of sublingual immunotherapy for Japanese cedar pollinosis have demonstrated its long-term efficacy and safety. It is recommended for patients who wish to undergo fundamental treatment regardless of the severity of the practical guidelines for the management of allergic rhinitis in Japan. For sublingual immunotherapy, a long-term treatment period of 3 years or longer is recommended to obtain stable therapeutic effects. 
  • 14
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Role of Gut Microbiome in Cow’s Milk Allergy
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is the most prevalent food allergy (FA) in infancy and early childhood and can be present with various clinical phenotypes. The significant increase in FA rates recorded has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes that limit microbial exposure in early life and induce changes in gut microbiome composition. Gut microbiome is a diverse community of microbes that colonize the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and perform beneficial functions for the host. This complex ecosystem interacts with the immune system and has a pivotal role in the development of oral tolerance to food antigens. Emerging evidence indicates that alterations of the gut microbiome (dysbiosis) in early life cause immune dysregulation and render the host susceptible to immune-mediated diseases later in life. 
  • 67
  • 10 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Heavy Metals for Macrophage Polarization in Asthma
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. The chronic inflammation of the airway is mediated by many cell types, cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators. Research suggests that exposure to air pollution has a negative impact on asthma outcomes in adult and pediatric populations. Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental risks to health, and it impacts the lungs’ innate and adaptive defense systems. A major pollutant in the air is particulate matter (PM), a complex component composed of elemental carbon and heavy metals. According to the WHO, 99% of people live in air pollution where air quality levels are lower than the WHO air quality guidelines. This suggests that the effect of air pollution exposure on asthma is a crucial health issue worldwide. Macrophages are essential in recognizing and processing any inhaled foreign material, such as PM. Alveolar macrophages are one of the predominant cell types that process and remove inhaled PM by secreting proinflammatory mediators from the lung.
  • 35
  • 31 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Development of Allergic Inflammation
Inflammation is an adaptive response to stimuli and conditions, such as infection, tissue damage, and cellular stress or malfunction. Regardless of the cause, inflammation likely evolved as an adaptive response to maintaining homeostasis. Many pathological and clinical burdens of allergic disease reflect the long-term consequences of chronic allergic inflammation at sites of persistent or repetitive exposure to allergens.
  • 64
  • 18 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Respiratory Viral Infection and Epithelial Immunity in Asthma
Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with asthma development and exacerbation in children and adults. In the course of immune responses to viruses, airway epithelial cells are the initial platform of innate immunity against viral invasion. Patients with severe asthma are more vulnerable than those with mild to moderate asthma to viral infections.
  • 46
  • 10 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Probiotic Use in Allergic Rhinitis Management
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common medical condition affecting up to 40% of the general population. A type 2 immunity determines eosinophilic inflammation that, in turn, elicits typical nasal symptoms. Type 2 immunity is eminently characterized by polarization of innate and adaptative B and T cells, increased production of type 2 cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, and impaired function of allergen-specific T regulatory cells (Tregs). This immunologic derangement promotes allergic inflammation, characterized by an abundant eosinophilic infiltrate and the presence of mast cells. The mast cells are activated by allergen exposure and release pro-inflammatory mediators, including histamine. These mediators interact with specific receptors and, consequently, are responsible for the appearance of typical AR symptoms: nasal itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion.
  • 45
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Hypersensitivity Reactions to Food Additives
Food additives (FAs) are commonly used in prosscessed foods, but hypersensitivity reactions to food additives (HFA) appears to be a rare phenomenon. Identification of the FA responsible for hypersensitivity and its treatment is difficult. Diagnosis is a challenge for the clinician and for the patient. A food diary is a helpful diagnostic tool. It allows diet therapy to be monitored based on the partial or complete elimination of products containing a harmful additive. An elimination diet must not be deficient, and symptomatic pharmacotherapy may be necessary if its application is ineffective.
  • 52
  • 21 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Dendrimers in Personalized Medicine
Dendrimers are a special class of synthetic macromolecules, constituted of branches built, step by step, around a central multifunctional core. Each layer of branching points creates a new “generation”. Most of the properties of dendrimers depend on the type of their terminal functions. Dendrimers are often considered as 3-dimensional soft nanoparticles, in opposition to hard metal nanoparticles. Despite the fact that nature has favored branching structures at all levels, from galaxies to trees and to dendritic cells, examples of branching at the molecular level are extremely rare. One can cite glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, and also some cases of branched lignin, but none of them have a precisely highly branched structure, as do dendrimers. Such unusual structure has generated a many expectations for dendrimers: a huge number of publications and patents exist in relation to medicine, including in relation to personalized medicine but have resulted in very poor clinical translation up to now. This entry focusses on some of the clinical trials carried out with dendrimers.
  • 84
  • 14 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Eosinophil Structure and Biology
Eosinophils are granulocytes with unique biology. The fact that these cells have been largely preserved during evolution strongly suggests that they play relevant physiological functions. Eosinophils have traditionally been classified as effector cells with prevalent cytotoxic activity, although recent evidence indicates that these cells may play a role in a wide range of homeostatic and regulatory functions.
  • 213
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Neurobiological Links between Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury
Neurological dysfunctions commonly occurs after mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although most TBI patients recover from such dysfunction in a short period of time, some present with persistent neurological deficits. Stress is a potential factor that is involved in recovery from neurological dysfunction after TBI. However, there has been limited research on the effects and mechanisms of stress on neurological dysfunctions due to TBI. The effects of TBI and stress on neurological dysfunctions and different brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus are investigated, and the neurobiological links and mechanisms between stress and TBI are explored.
  • 100
  • 07 Sep 2022
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