Topic Review
The Origin, Application and Mechanism of Therapeutic Climbing
作为一种创新的运动疗法,治疗性攀岩(TC)近年来吸引了比以往更多的关注。在本文对TC相关研究的综述中,作者探讨了其起源和发展;总结其在治疗抑郁症,腰痛等疾病的治疗效果;并进一步分析其潜在机制。根据文献,TC主要应用于骨科领域,然后逐渐应用于神经病学,精神病学和心理学。它为治疗抑郁症,下背部疼痛,多发性硬化症和其他疾病提供了新的手段。有两种潜在的机制:生理和心理。未来,应通过大样本和高质量随机对照试验来探索TC的运动效果,不良反应和运动处方。
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Eye Involvement in Wilson’s Disease
Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene, resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and accumulation in various tissues. Ocular findings are one of the hallmarks of the disease. Many ophthalmological manifestations have been described and new techniques are currently available to improve their diagnosis and to follow their evolution. The most common ocular findings seen in WD patients are Kayser–Fleischer ring (KFR) and sunflower cataracts. Other ocular manifestations may involve retinal tissue, visual systems and eye mobility. Diagnosis and follow-up under decoppering treatment of these ocular findings are generally easily performed with slit-lamp examination (SLE). However, new techniques are available for the precocious detection of ocular findings due to WD and may be of great value for non-experimented ophthalmologists and non-ophthalmologists practitioners. 
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Current Challenges in Breast Implantation
Breast implantation (BI) is the most common plastic surgery worldwide performed among women. Generally, BI is performed both in aesthetic and oncoplastic procedures. 
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis is a rare dermatological condition with high mortality and serious consequences on its survivors. Despite having been first described in 1956, its pathophysiology remains uncertain, mainly regarding its mechanisms, although it seems that certain apoptosis pathways are pivotal in starting keratinocytes’ apoptosis and in activating T cells, especially those mediated by tumour necrosis factor, Fas-FasL and granulysin. In general, its aetiology and presentation are consensual, being defined as a generalized necrolysis of the epidermis that occurs as an uncontrolled immune response to a specific drug or one of its metabolites, highlighting cotrimoxazole and allopurinol as the most important. This necrolysis leads to a massive shedding of the epidermal layer of the skin, with stronger incidences in the torso, upper limbs and face. Its complications tend to be severe, noting that septic ones are responsible for over half of the disease’s mortality. Nearly all survivors develop long-term sequelae, namely hypertrophic scarring and skin pigmentation anomalies.
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Retinal Toxicity Induced by Chemical Agents
Vision is an important sense for humans, and visual impairment/blindness has a huge impact in daily life. The retina is a nervous tissue that is essential for visual processing since it possesses light sensors (photoreceptors) and performs a pre-processing of visual information. Thus, retinal cell dysfunction or degeneration affects visual ability and several general aspects of the day-to-day of a person’s lives. The retina has a blood–retinal barrier, which protects the tissue from a wide range of molecules or microorganisms. However, several agents, coming from systemic pathways, reach the retina and influence its function and survival. Pesticides are still used worldwide for agriculture, contaminating food with substances that could reach the retina. Natural products have also been used for therapeutic purposes and are another group of substances that can get to the retina. Finally, a wide number of medicines administered for different diseases can also affect the retina. The present review aimed to gather recent information about the hazard of these products to the retina, which could be used to encourage the search for more healthy, suitable, or less risky agents.
  • 3
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Genetic RyR2 Disease
The ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has a critical role in controlling Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) throughout the cardiac cycle. RyR2 protein has multiple functional domains with specific roles, and four of these RyR2 protomers are required to form the quaternary structure that comprises the functional channel. Numerous mutations in the gene encoding RyR2 protein have been identified and many are linked to a wide spectrum of arrhythmic heart disease. Gain of function mutations result in a hyperactive channel that causes excessive spontaneous SR Ca2+ release, but rare hypoactive loss of function mutations have also been described.
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Nanomedicines for Overcoming Cancer Drug Resistance
Clinically, cancer drug resistance to chemotherapy, targeted therapy or immunotherapy remains the main impediment towards curative cancer therapy, which leads directly to treatment failure along with extended hospital stays, increased medical costs and high mortality. Therefore, increasing attention has been paid to nanotechnology-based delivery systems for overcoming drug resistance in cancer. In this respect, novel tumor-targeting nanomedicines offer fairly effective therapeutic strategies for surmounting the various limitations of chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy, enabling more precise cancer treatment, more convenient monitoring of treatment agents, as well as surmounting cancer drug resistance, including multidrug resistance (MDR). Nanotechnology-based delivery systems, including liposomes, polymer micelles, nanoparticles (NPs), and DNA nanostructures, enable a large number of properly designed therapeutic nanomedicines. Nanomedicines have paved the way for effective treatment of cancer by rationally designing strategies such as passive targeted drug delivery, active targeted drug delivery, co-delivery of combinatorial agents and multimodal combination therapy, and have broad prospects in overcoming drug resistance. It is believed that nanomedicines will be an attractive strategy for reversing or overcoming cancer drug resistance.
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Natural Products against Oxidative Stress in Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-mediated degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by immune cell infiltration, demyelination and axonal injury. Oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response, especially the destructive effect of immune cell-derived free radicals on neurons and oligodendrocytes, is crucial in the onset and progression of MS. Therefore, targeting oxidative stress-related processes may be a promising preventive and therapeutic strategy for MS. Animal models, especially rodent models, can be used to explore the in vivo molecular mechanisms of MS considering their similarity to the pathological processes and clinical signs of MS in humans and the significant oxidative damage observed within their CNS. Consequently, these models have been used widely in pre-clinical studies of oxidative stress in MS. To date, many natural products have been shown to exert antioxidant effects to attenuate the CNS damage in animal models of MS.
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Greco-Arabic Contribution to The Urolithiasis Management and Treatment
Many Greco-Arabic Muslim scientists have contributed to medicine and surgery in the diagnosis, surgery and natural medicines for the treatment of urolithiasis.
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  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Muslim Heritage in Medicine
Many Greco Arabic Muslim scientists have contributed to the medicine field.
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