Topic Review
Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anxiety Disorders
Developing an anxiety disorder can be the source of further cognitive, behavioral, and emotional struggles, impacting the quality of life of people experiencing such disorders and leading to a burden on health systems. Increased knowledge of the neurobiological events leading to the development of such disorders can be crucial for diagnostic procedures, as well as the selection and adaptation of therapeutic and preventive measures. Despite recent advances in this field, research is still at the initial steps when it comes to understanding the specific neurofunctional processes guiding these changes in the brains of people with an anxiety disorder. 
  • 50
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Gut and Intratumoral Microbiomes in Tumor Metastasis
Cancer cell dissemination involves invasion, migration, resistance to stressors in the circulation, extravasation, colonization, and other functions responsible for macroscopic metastases. By enhancing invasiveness, motility, and intravasation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process promotes the generation of circulating tumor cells and their collective migration. Preclinical and clinical studies have documented intensive crosstalk between the gut microbiome, host organism, and immune system. According to the findings, polymorphic microbes might play diverse roles in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and therapy response. Microbial imbalances and changes in the levels of bacterial metabolites and toxins promote cancer progression via EMT and angiogenesis. In contrast, a favorable microbial composition, together with microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can attenuate the processes of tumor initiation, disease progression, and the formation of distant metastases.
  • 451
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a complex challenge with diverse underlying pathological mechanisms and etiologies. The clinical applications of AKI biomarkers are becoming extensive and serving as relevant tools in distinguishing acute tubular necrosis from other acute renal conditions. Also, these biomarkers can offer significant insights into the risk of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in the context of kidney transplantation.
  • 442
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Therapeutic Potential of Fungal Terpenes and Terpenoids
Terpenes and their derivatives comprise a diverse group of natural compounds with versatile medicinal properties. This article elucidates the general characteristics of fungal terpenes and terpenoids, encompassing their structure and biogenesis. The focal point of this work involves a comprehensive overview of these compounds, highlighting their therapeutic properties, mechanisms of action, and potential applications in treating specific skin conditions. Numerous isolated terpenes and terpenoids have demonstrated noteworthy anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects, rivalling or surpassing the efficacy of currently employed treatments for inflammation or skin infections. Due to their well-documented antioxidant and anti-cancer attributes, these compounds exhibit promise in both preventing and treating skin cancer. Terpenes and terpenoids sourced from fungi display the capability to inhibit tyrosinase, suggesting potential applications in addressing skin pigmentation disorders and cancers linked to melanogenesis dysfunctions.
  • 56
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT): Innovations and Improvements
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells distributed throughout the human body. With an increasing incidence over the past few decades, they represent a highly heterogeneous group of neoplasms, mostly expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) on their cell surface. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has emerged as a crucial strategy for treating advanced, unresectable neuroendocrine tumors by administering radiolabeled somatostatin analogs intravenously to target SSTRs. This article will focus on the multidisciplinary theranostic approach, treatment effectiveness (such as response rates and symptom relief), patient outcomes, toxicity profile of PRRT for NEN patients and results of the most significant studies.
  • 27
  • 10 Apr 2024
Topic Review
DNA Methylation in Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, and Lymphoma
DNA methylation represents a crucial mechanism of epigenetic regulation in hematologic malignancies. The methylation process is controlled by specific DNA methyl transferases and other regulators, which are often affected by genetic alterations. Global hypomethylation and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes are associated with hematologic cancer development and progression. Several epi-drugs have been successfully implicated in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, including the hypomethylating agents (HMAs) decitabine and azacytidine. However, combinations with other treatment modalities and the discovery of new molecules are still the subject of research to increase sensitivity to anti-cancer therapies and improve patient outcomes. 
  • 551
  • 09 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Microbiome in Cancer Development and Treatment
Targeting the microbiome, microbiota-derived metabolites, and related pathways represents a significant challenge in oncology. Microbiome analyses have confirmed the negative impact of cancer treatment on gut homeostasis, resulting in acute dysbiosis and severe complications, including massive inflammatory immune response, mucosal barrier disruption, and bacterial translocation across the gut epithelium. Moreover, recent studies revealed the relationship between an imbalance in the gut microbiome and treatment-related toxicity. Recently, microbiota modulation via probiotic supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation represents a new trend in cancer patient care, aiming to increase bacterial diversity, alleviate acute and long-term treatment-induced toxicity, and improve the response to various treatment modalities. A more detailed understanding of the complex relationship between the microbiome and host can significantly contribute to integrating a microbiome-based approach into clinical practice. 
  • 63
  • 08 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Exercise in Cognition and Brain Health in Aging
Physical activity and exercise have a biologically plausible and temporal relationship with a multitude of diseases, including coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Exercise, on the other hand, is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured and repetitive and has the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Regular endurance and resistance exercise training decreases age-related morbidity and mortality, improves risk factors for chronic disease, and helps maintain independent functioning.
  • 47
  • 07 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Extracellular Vesicles from Mammalian Cells in Neurodegenerative Diseases
A growing number of studies have indicated that extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, are involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Components of EVs with biological effects like proteins, nucleic acids, or other molecules can be delivered to recipient cells to mediate physio-/pathological processes. For instance, some aggregate-prone proteins, such as β-amyloid and α-synuclein, had been found to propagate through exosomes. Therefore, either an increase of detrimental molecules or a decrease of beneficial molecules enwrapped in EVs may fully or partly indicate disease progression. 
  • 61
  • 02 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Health Risks of Children in Marathon Races
Compared with other sports, running is popular sport for children throughout the world. Over the last few decades, marathon running has become increasingly popular even in the age group below 18 years. While the majority of youth athletes fall within the 16–18 age range, it is noteworthy that there are also participants younger than 12 years engaging in marathon races. Advice on the safety of youth athletes participating in these events is frequently sought by parents, coaches, sport scientists, and medical professionals, particularly concerning potential short- and long-term health consequences. The act of marathon running has the potential to impact key organ systems during the crucial phases of growth and development. To ensure the safety of marathon running in youth runners, it is essential to address multiple physiological and psychological aspects of health. These recommendations are directed towards ensuring the safe participation of youth athletes in marathon races through proper and individualized assessments.
  • 53
  • 02 Apr 2024
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