Topic Review
Hyperoncotic Human Albumin Solution in Traumatic Brain Injury
Fluid resuscitation with human albumin solution (HAS) corrects low serum albumin levels and aids in preserving euvolemia in non-brain-injured intensive care units and in perioperative patients. Ischemia, hypotension, hypoxia, and energy dysfunction are important determinants of the outcomes following a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) are frequently observed after TBI, leading to cerebral ischemia.
  • 7
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Sarilumab Administration in COVID-19 Patients
Two years have passed since WHO declared a pandemic state for SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 pathogenesis consists of a first viral phase responsible for early symptoms followed by an inflammatory phase, cytokine-mediated, responsible for late-onset manifestations up to ARDS. The dysregulated immune response has an outstanding role in the progression of pulmonary damage in COVID-19. IL-6, through the induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, plays a key role in the development and maintenance of inflammation, acting as a pioneer of the hyperinflammatory condition and cytokine storm in severe COVID-19. Therefore, drugs targeting both IL-6 and IL-6 receptors have been evaluated in order to blunt the abnormal SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine release. Sarilumab, a high-affinity anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, may represent a promising weapon to treat the fearsome hyperinflammatory phase by improving the outcome of patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
  • 14
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Diagnostics of HNSCC Patients
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are very frequent worldwide, and smoking and chronic alcohol use are recognized as the main risk factors. For oropharyngeal cancers, HPV 16 infection is known to be a risk factor as well. By employing next-generation sequencing, both HPV-positive and negative HNSCC patients were detected as positive for PI3K mutation, which was considered an optimal molecular target. The treatment of HNSCC includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy alone or combined. In some cases, resistance to therapy with recurrences and metastasis and/or side effects appear. This underlines the need for a new direction of research for targeted cancer therapy.
  • 15
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Zebrafish as a Model for Cancer Treatments
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate model species traditionally used for studying developmental biology and vertebrate genetics, and more recently, to model human diseases such as cancer. The role of zebrafish as a platform for anticancer therapy studies has been highly evidenced, allowing researchers not only to perform drug screenings but also to evaluate novel therapies such as immunotherapies and nanotherapies.
  • 24
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Phytochemicals and Nano-Phytopharmaceuticals
Nanomedicines emerged from nanotechnology and have been introduced to bring advancements in treating multiple diseases. Nano-phytomedicines are synthesized from active phytoconstituents or plant extracts. Advancements in nanotechnology also help in the diagnosis, monitoring, control, and prevention of various diseases. The field of nanomedicine and the improvements of nanoparticles has been of keen interest in multiple industries, including pharmaceutics, diagnostics, electronics, communications, and cosmetics. In herbal medicines, these nanoparticles have several attractive properties that have brought them to the forefront in searching for novel drug delivery systems by enhancing efficacy, bioavailability, and target specificity. 
  • 18
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Alcohol, Drinking Pattern, and Chronic Disease
Alcohol is an addictive substance consumed worldwide, especially in European countries. Recommendations on alcohol consumption are controversial. On one hand, many nonrandomized studies defend that moderate consumption has a beneficial cardiovascular effect or a lower risk of all-cause mortality. On the other hand, alcohol is associated with an increased risk of cancer, neurological diseases, or injuries, among others.
  • 17
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Rare Genetic Syndromes Associated with Autism
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communicative skills, behavioral stereotypes, and sensory abnormalities. Its prevalence is one in 54 children, with the number of identified cases rising annually. Atypical sensory processing is one of the key characteristics of autistic people that can have a cascading influence on higher-level functions, such as language or social inference. Behaviorally, sensory abnormalities can present as hypo- and hyperresponsiveness (or hypo- and hyperreactivity). One of potential reasons for this multidirectional deficit is the high heterogeneity of idiopathic ASD (the form of autism where the biological cause of the disease is not identified). 
  • 15
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Lymphatic Drainage of Renal Tissues
Acute kidney injury (AKI), especially if recurring, represents a risk factor for future chronic kidney disease. In intensive care units, increased intra-abdominal pressure is well-recognized as a significant contributor to AKI. Renal interstitial pressure changes synchronously to renal perfusion pressure. The renal parenchyma is primarily drained by the urine conducting and renal venous system. The renal lymphatic system can also contribute to renal compartment syndrome, the functional changes in the lymphatic flow was not investigated in connection with pneumo-peritoneum.
  • 13
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Chronic Wounds
The chronicity of wounds is affected by several contributory factors, including hormonal imbalances, cytokines, invasive microbial infections, and growth factors. More importantly, bacterial infections have been implicated as the predominant feature in most chronic wound microenvironments, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These bacteria exist in polymicrobial forms forming biofilms that afford them protection against the host’s immunity and conventional antibiotics. S. aureus biofilms are sometimes present close to the surface of chronic wounds, while P. aeruginosa biofilms appear deep within wound tissue. The recalcitrant disposition of these microbes has been implicated as one of the causalities of antimicrobial resistance.
  • 27
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
The Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Gynecology
Regenerative medicine combines elements of tissue engineering and molecular biology aiming to support the regeneration and repair processes of damaged tissues, cells and organs. The most commonly used preparation in regenerative medicine is platelet rich plasma (PRP) containing numerous growth factors present in platelet granularities. This therapy is increasingly used in various fields of medicine. 
  • 17
  • 17 May 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 632
Top