Topic Review
Ketogenic Diet in Treatment of Gliomas and Glioblastomas
In recent years, scientific interest in the use of Ketogenic Diet (KD) as a complementary approach to the standard cancer therapy has grown, in particular against those of the Central Nervous System (CNS). In metabolic terms, there are differences between healthy and neoplastic cells: neoplastic cells divert their metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), they alter the normal mitochondrial functioning and they use mainly certain amino acids for their own metabolic needs, to gain an advantage over healthy cells and to lead to a pro-oncogenetic effect. Several works in literature speculate which are the molecular targets of KD used against cancer. Different mechanisms of action will be explored in this review: metabolic, inflammatory, oncogenic and oncosuppressive, ROS and epigenetic modulation. Preclinical and clinical studies on the use of KD in CNS tumors have also increased in recent years. An interesting hypothesis emerged from them about the possible use of ketogenic diet as a combination therapy along with chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of cancer. Currently, however, clinical data are still very limited but encouraging, so we need further studies to definitively validate or disprove the role of KD in fighting against cancer. 
  • 8
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly
Pneumonia in the elderly has been increasing on an annual basis. To a greater or lesser extent, aspiration is a major contributor to the development of pneumonia in the elderly. Antimicrobials alone are not sufficient for the treatment of pneumonia, and the condition may become intractable or even recur repeatedly. In addition, some patients with pneumonia may have no problems with eating, while others are unable to receive the necessary nutrition due to severe dysphagia. It has been found that pneumonia decreases both the muscle mass and strength of the swallowing and respiratory muscles, a condition named pneumonia-associated sarcopenia. This contributes to a pathophysiological time-axis of aspiration pneumonia and dysphagia in the elderly, in which silent aspiration leads to the development of pneumonia, and further to dysphagia, malnutrition, and low immunity. 
  • 6
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Potassium Ion Channels in Malignant Central Nervous System
Potassium ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins involved in maintaining the electrical microenvironment of cells. In cancers, these proteins are known to play a significant role in the development of cancer hallmarks like proliferation, invasion, and adaptive drug resistance. Malignant central nervous system (CNS) cancers are notoriously difficult to treat, with just one-third of patients surviving five years post-diagnosis. Their location within the brain and brainstem presents several challenges to successful treatment, including surgical inaccessibility and designing effective therapies that pass the brain’s protective barrier. Furthermore, high-grade CNS cancer is also prone to recurrence, and the secondary tumours that arise are highly resistant to treatment. 
  • 7
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening condition associated with high mortality and substantial long-term morbidity. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a new pathogen that causes a disease with variable clinical manifestations. Although the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulopathy, patients may also present with cerebral hemorrhage, including SAH. 
  • 10
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Structural Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine-Derived Bacillus
The marine is a highly complex ecosystem including various microorganisms. Bacillus species is a predominant microbialflora widely distributed in marine ecosystems. Bacillus species is a predominant microbialflora widely distributed in marine ecosystems. Bacillus species can grow rapidly and tolerate extremely adverse environmental conditions such as extreme ambient temperature, salinity and pH, high pressure and nutrient deficiency. B. subtilis can adopt several responses when faced with the depletion of essential nutrients, including motility, secretion of extracellular enzymes, genetic transformation, antibiotic production, and finally sporulation. The genus Bacillus is a prolific producer of bioactive metabolites, including more than 350 kinds of rod-shaped and Gram-positive bacteria. 
  • 6
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Respiratory Viral Infection and Epithelial Immunity in Asthma
Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with asthma development and exacerbation in children and adults. In the course of immune responses to viruses, airway epithelial cells are the initial platform of innate immunity against viral invasion. Patients with severe asthma are more vulnerable than those with mild to moderate asthma to viral infections.
  • 7
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Single Use Medical Device Reprocessing
Single-use medical device reprocessing is the disinfection, cleaning, remanufacturing, testing, packaging and labeling, and sterilization among other steps, of a used, (or, in some cases, a device opened from its original packaging but unused), medical device to be put in service again. All reprocessed medical devices originally labeled for single use in the United States are subject to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing requirements and must meet strict cleaning, functionality, and sterility specifications prior to use. Although first regulated in the U.S., the reprocessing of medical devices, particularly those that are labeled “Single Use Device” (SUDs), is a global practice with countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America actively engaged in reprocessing. Currently, approximately 2% of all SUDs on the U.S. market are eligible for reprocessing by a qualified third-party vendor. The U.S. revenue for reprocessed devices (not SUDs) is estimated to be around $400 million annually.
  • 8
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Transgender Hormone Therapy (Male-to-female)
Transgender hormone therapy of the male-to-female (MTF) type, also known as transfeminine hormone therapy, is hormone therapy and sex reassignment therapy to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from masculine or androgynous to feminine. It is one of two types of transgender hormone therapy (the other being female-to-male) and is predominantly used to treat transgender women and other transfeminine individuals. Some intersex people also take this form of therapy, according to their personal needs and preferences. The purpose of the therapy is to cause the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the desired sex, such as breasts and a feminine pattern of hair, fat, and muscle distribution. It cannot undo many of the changes produced by naturally occurring puberty, which may necessitate surgery and other treatments to reverse (see below). The medications used for the MTF therapy include estrogens, antiandrogens, progestogens, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators (GnRH modulators). While the therapy cannot undo the effects of a person's first puberty, developing secondary sex characteristics associated with a different gender has been shown to relieve some or all of the distress and discomfort associated with gender dysphoria, and can help the person to "pass" or be seen as the gender they identify with. Introducing exogenous hormones into the body impacts it at every level and many patients report changes in energy levels, mood, appetite, etc. The goal of the therapy is to provide patients with a more satisfying body that is more congruent with their gender identity.
  • 6
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Mental Distress
Mental distress (or psychological distress) is a term used, by some mental health practitioners and users of mental health services, to describe a range of symptoms and experiences of a person's internal life that are commonly held to be troubling, confusing or out of the ordinary. Mental distress can potentially lead to a change of behavior, affect a person's emotions in a negative way, and affect their relationships with the people around them. Certain traumatic life experiences such as: bereavement, stress, lack of sleep, use of drugs or alcohol, assault, abuse or accidents can induce mental distress. This may be something which resolves without further medical intervention, though people who endure such symptoms longer term are more likely to be diagnosed with mental illness. This definition is not without controversy as some mental health practitioners would use the terms mental distress and mental illness interchangeably. Some users of mental health services prefer the term mental distress in describing their experience as they feel it better captures that sense of the unique and personal nature of their experience, while also making it easier to relate to, since everyone experiences distress at different times. The term also fits better with the social model of disability.
  • 6
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles
Chitosan Nanoparticles are made from chitosan or its derivatives. The N-deacetylated derivative of chitin is an appealing biopolymer for producing nanoparticles because chitosan has a unique polymeric cationic nature, non-toxicity, high biocompatibility, mucoadhesive properties, absorption-enhancing qualities, and biodegradability.
  • 10
  • 06 Oct 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 764
Top
Feedback