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ω-3 PUFA on colon cancer
Substantial human and animal studies support the beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colonic inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are inconsistent results, which have shown that ω-3 PUFAs have no effect or even detrimental effects, making it difficult to effectively implement ω-3 PUFAs for disease prevention. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of ω-3 PUFAs will help to clarify their potential health-promoting effects, provide a scientific base for cautions for their use, and establish dietary recommendations.
17 Nov 2020
γ-Glutamyltransferase in Urologic Neoplasms
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), a membrane-bound enzyme, contributes to the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which plays a critical physiological role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. GGT has been proposed as a biomarker of carcinogenesis and tumor progression given that GGT activity is important during both the promotion and invasion phases in cancer cells.
14 Apr 2021
βTCP-Poly(3hydroxybutyrate) for Bone Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering is a technique that involves the in vitro seeding and attachment of cells onto a three-dimensional scaffold. In the case of bone tissue engineering, investigations have been focused mostly on synthetic bioceramic scaffolds based on calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate. Due to their chemical similarity to an inorganic component of bone, hydroxyapatite, as well as βTCP- and αTCP-based materials, show excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity.
03 Aug 2021
β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent single gene blood disorder, while the assessment of its susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) warrants it a pressing biomedical priority.
02 Sep 2021
β-Naphthoflavone, Ethanol Reverse Mitochondrial Dysfunction
The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is a parkinsonian-inducing toxin that promotes neurodegeneration of dopaminergic cells by directly targeting complex I of mitochondria. Recently, it was reported that some Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, such as CYP 2D6 or 2E1, may be involved in the development of this neurodegenerative disease. In order to study a possible role for CYP induction in neurorepair, we designed an in vitro model where undifferentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with the CYP inducers β-naphthoflavone (βNF) and ethanol (EtOH) before and during exposure to the parkinsonian neurotoxin, MPP+. The toxic effect of MPP+ in cell viability was rescued with both βNF and EtOH treatments. We also report that this was due to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, restoration of mitochondrial fusion kinetics, and mitochondrial membrane potential. These treatments also protected complex I activity against the inhibitory effects caused by MPP+, suggesting a possible neuroprotective role for CYP inducers. These results bring new insights into the possible role of CYP isoenzymes in xenobiotic clearance and central nervous system homeostasis.
02 Nov 2020
The inhibitors of β-lactamases (BLI) have gained a prominent role in the safeguard of beta-lactams. In the last years, new β-lactam–BLI combinations have been registered or are still under clinical evaluation, demonstrating their effectiveness to treat complicated infections. It is also noteworthy that the pharmacokinetics of BLIs partly matches that of β-lactams companions, meaning that some clinical situations, as well as renal impairment and renal replacement therapies, may alter the disposition of both drugs. Common pharmacokinetic characteristics, linear pharmacokinetics across a wide range of doses, and known pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters may guide modifications of dosing regimens for both β-lactams and BLIs. However, comorbidities (i.e., burns, diabetes, cancer) and severe changes in individual pathological conditions (i.e., acute renal impairment, sepsis) could make dose adaptation difficult, because the impact of those factors on BLI pharmacokinetics is partly known. Therapeutic drug monitoring protocols may overcome those issues and offer strategies to personalize drug doses in the intensive care setting. Further prospective clinical trials are warranted to improve the use of BLIs and their β-lactam companions in severe and complicated infections.
11 Jul 2021
β-hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders worldwide and are caused by mutations affecting the production or the structure of adult hemoglobin. Patients affected by these diseases suffer from anemia, impaired oxygen delivery to tissues, and multi-organ damage. In the absence of a compatible donor for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, the lifelong therapeutic options are symptomatic care, red blood cell transfusions and pharmacological treatments. The last decades of research established lentiviral-mediated gene therapy as an efficacious therapeutic strategy. However, this approach is highly expensive and associated with a variable outcome depending on the effectiveness of the viral vector and the quality of the cell product. In the last years, genome editing emerged as a valuable tool for the development of curative strategies for β-hemoglobinopathies. Moreover, due to the wide range of its applications, genome editing has been extensively used to study regulatory mechanisms underlying globin gene regulation allowing the identification of novel genetic and pharmacological targets.
18 Feb 2021
β-Catenin in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest human cancers. Activating mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter (TERTp) and CTNNB1 gene encoding β-catenin are widespread in HCC (~50% and ~30%, respectively). TERTp mutations are predicted to increase TERT transcription and telomerase activity.
02 Sep 2021
β-Catenin and Hepatocellular Cancer
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC), the most common primary liver tumor, has been gradually growing in incidence globally. The whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of HCC has led to an improved understanding of the molecular drivers of this tumor type. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, mostly due to stabilizing missense mutations in its downstream effector β-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) or loss-of-function mutations in AXIN1 (the gene which encodes for Axin-1, an essential protein for β-catenin degradation), are seen in a major subset of HCC.
28 Apr 2021
β-Caryophyllene in Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a series of defective cellular events, including decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) output, and altered proteastasis and cellular quality control. An enhanced output of ROS may damage mitochondrial components, such as mitochondrial DNA and elements of the electron transport chain, resulting in the loss of proper electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane and an ensuing shutdown of mitochondrial energy production. Neurons have an increased demand for ATP and oxygen, and thus are more prone to damage induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction, damaged electron transport chains, altered membrane permeability and Ca2+ homeostasis, and impaired mitochondrial defense systems induced by oxidative stress, are pathological changes involved in neurodegenerative disorders. A growing body of evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants could stabilize mitochondria and thus may be suitable for preventing neuronal loss. Numerous natural products exhibit the potential to counter oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction; however, science is still looking for a breakthrough in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. β-caryophyllene is a bicyclic sesquiterpene, and an active principle of essential oils derived from a large number of spices and food plants. As a selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, several studies have reported it as possessing numerous pharmacological activities such as antibacterial (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic (e.g., neuropathic pain), anti-neurodegenerative and anticancer properties.
27 Apr 2022
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Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
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Encyclopedia of Engineering
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