Topic Review
Melanoma Brain Metastases
Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a common occurrence for patients with advanced-stage melanoma, where up to 60% of all melanoma patients will develop brain metastasis during the progression of their disease .
  • 288
  • 02 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Factors Affecting the Lipoprotein(a) Levels
Lipoprotein(a) is a variant of LDL-C, distinguished by the covalent binding of ApoB100 to a unique glycoprotein called apolipoprotein(a) via a disulfide thioester bond.
  • 38
  • 01 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Cyclodextrin-Based Drug Delivery Systems
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CDNSs) are complex macromolecular structures composed of individual cyclodextrins (CDs) and nanochannels created between cross-linked CD units and cross-linkers.
  • 34
  • 01 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Lifestyle Interventions as Secondary Stroke Prevention Measures
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, but it has been shown in several observational studies and systematic reviews to be a highly preventable disease. Lifestyle modifications are essential to national/international guidelines and recommendations for secondary stroke prevention.
  • 25
  • 01 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Melanoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma
Skin cancer is a common, preventable condition of global importance. Different types of skin cancer, like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, have various risk factors, including UV exposure and genetics. Identifying these risk factors is crucial for targeting early detection and nuanced treatment.
  • 68
  • 29 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)
The Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz, also known as Maqui, is an endemic berry native to southern Chile. It is a very popular berry for its nutritional attributes and health benefits, provided mainly by its polyphenols.
  • 47
  • 29 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Allicin
Allicin is one of the main ingredients in garlic (Allium sativum L.). It is a bioactive sulfur compound maintained in various plant sections in a precursor state.
  • 38
  • 28 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Large Language Model-Enabled Medical Chatbots
The trajectory of artificial intelligence (AI) development spans decades, with machine learning (ML) emerging as a pivotal force in propelling AI’s evolution. The adoption of AI and ML in the medical field has experienced significant growth, particularly in ML-enabled medical devices. Chatbots, AI-driven conversational agents prevalent in online interactions, have found extensive utility in disseminating healthcare information and enhancing customer services. These features encompass accurate information retrieval, symptom assessment, and diagnosis support to help in understanding and addressing health concerns. 
  • 134
  • 27 Mar 2024
Topic Review
URAT1 and Other UA Transporters with Metabolic Syndrome
Urate transporter 1 (URAT1), which is a urate anion exchanger that regulates serum uric acid (UA) levels in the human kidney, was identified in 2002, and it has been targeted by uricosuric agents. In humans, renal reabsorption of UA into the blood plays an important role in controlling serum UA levels. The UA exchange is mediated by various molecules expressed in the renal proximal tubule. UA enters the proximal tubule epithelial cells in exchange for monocarboxylate via apical URAT1 and for dicarboxylate via the apical organic anion transporter (OAT) 4. OAT1 and OAT3 on the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells transport UA from the renal interstitial into the renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Renal UA reabsorption is mainly mediated by URAT1 and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9). Apical GLUT9b plays a significant role in UA reabsorption; the reabsorbed UA exits the proximal tubule epithelial cells into the blood through basolateral GLUT9a. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) has been identified as a high-capacity UA exporter that mediates renal and/or extra-renal (intestinal) UA excretion.
  • 57
  • 27 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Imaging Tools for Detection of Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascularization
Inflammation plays a key role in the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (iCNV) is a severe but uncommon complication of both infectious and non-infectious uveitides. Inflammation itself can compromise perfusion, generating a gradient of retinal–choroidal hypoxia that additionally promotes the formation of choroidal neovascularization in the course of uveitis. The development of choroidal neovascularization may be a complication, especially in conditions such as punctate inner choroidopathy, multifocal choroiditis, serpiginous choroiditis, and presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome. Although the majority of iCNV cases are well defined and appear as the “classic” type (type 2 lesion) on fluorescein angiography, the diagnosis of iCNV is challenging due to difficulties in differentiating between inflammatory choroiditis lesions and choroidal neovascularization. Modern multimodal imaging, particularly the recently introduced technology of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (noninvasive and rapid imaging modalities), can reveal additional features that aid the diagnosis of iCNV. 
  • 28
  • 27 Mar 2024
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