Topic Review
Taro Corms
Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is an ancient tuberous crop that is cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates as staple food source. The edible part of taro widely used for human consumption is known as corm. Taro corms contain valuable bioactive molecules effective against cancer and cancer-related risk factors, such as carcinogens and biological agents, several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative stress and inflammation, while controlling metabolic dysfunctions and boosting the immunological response. Such broad effects are achieved by the taro health-influencing compounds displaying antitumoral, antimutagenic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Although these health-promoting effects have been recognized since ancient times, as well as other valuable features of taro for food profit, such as hypo-allergenicity, gluten-free, and carbohydrates with medium-glycemic index, taro crop remains underexploited.
  • 11.1K
  • 29 Jan 2021
Topic Review
The Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway
Tryptophan (TRP) is one of the essential amino acids, which participates in protein synthesis. The tryptophan’s main metabolic route is the kynurenine pathway (KP) through which approximately 90-95% of TRP degrades into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and other bioactive metabolites. The appropriate amount of NAD+ is essential to maintain the operation and the viability of cells. The other molecules are neurotoxic, neuroprotective, oxidant, antioxidant, and/or immune modifiers. They play an important role in the function of the brain and the peripheral tissues. The change in the levels of the bioactive molecules is considered to contribute to the development of a wide range of illnesses from cancer to immunologic, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric diseases.
  • 10.8K
  • 10 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Perceptual Organization
Gestalt theory has provided perceptual science with a conceptual framework relating to brain mechanisms that determine the way we see the visual world. This is referred to as "Perceptual Organization" and has inspired researchers in Psychology, Neuroscience and Computational Design ever since. The major Gestalt principles, such as the principle of Prägnanz, and more importantly the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization, have been critically important to our understanding of visual information processing, how the brain detects order in what we see, and derives likely perceptual representations from statistically significant structural regularities. The perceptual integration of contrast information across co-linear space for the organization of objects in the 2D image plane into figure and ground convey the most elementary basis to our understanding of the visual world. Gestalt theory continues to generate powerful concepts and insights for perceptual science even today, where it is to be placed in the context of image-base decision making by human minds and machines.
  • 10.0K
  • 22 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Hormonal Breast Enhancement
Hormonal breast enhancement or augmentation is a highly experimental potential medical treatment for the breasts in which hormones or hormonal agents such as estrogen, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are utilized or manipulated to produce breast enlargement in women. It is a possible alternative or supplement to surgical breast augmentation with breast implants or fat transfer and other means of medical breast enlargement. In addition to pharmaceuticals, some herbal breast enlargement supplements contain phytoestrogens such as 8-prenylnaringenin (found in hops) and miroestrol (a constituent of Pueraria mirifica) and thus may be regarded as a form of hormonal breast enhancement. However, evidence of their effectiveness, as well as safety data, are lacking.
  • 9.3K
  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Pathophysiology of Obesity
Obesity is a challenging condition of excess body fat, caused by an imbalance in energy consumption and expenditure.
  • 8.8K
  • 18 Mar 2021
Topic Review
World Index of Moral Freedom
{{Multiple issues| The World Index of Moral Freedom is sponsored and published by the Foundation for the Advancement of Liberty, a libertarian think tank based in Madrid, Spain . The Index is an international index ranking one hundred and sixty countries on their performance on five categories of indicators: The WIMF's first edition was published on 2 April 2016, co-authored by Foundation researchers Andreas Kohl and Juan Pina. A second edition was published by the same foundation in July 2018, this time authored by Juan Pina and Emma Watson.
  • 8.7K
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Physiological Effects of Marijuana
To understand the impact of marijuana on the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is comprised of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (both of which are endogenous lipid mediators), their metabolic enzymes, and G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) plus G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) [24]. CB1R is the primary receptor that mediates the effects of marijuana. CB1R is present in the brain, heart, vascular smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous system [6]. Its extensive presence in the human body makes its activation wide-reaching and impacts multiple systems.
  • 8.5K
  • 06 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Mechanisms of anticoagulant drugs
Anticoagulant drugs have been used to prevent and treat thrombosis. However, they are associated with risk of hemorrhage. Therefore, prior to their clinical use, it is important to assess the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. In case of older anticoagulant drugs like heparin and warfarin, dose adjustment is required owing to narrow therapeutic ranges. The established monitoring methods for heparin and warfarin are activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)/anti-Xa assay and prothrombin time – international normalized ratio (PT-INR), respectively. Since 2008, new generation anticoagulant drugs, called direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), have been widely prescribed to prevent and treat several thromboembolic diseases. Although the use of DOACs without routine monitoring and frequent dose adjustment has been shown to be safe and effective, there may be clinical circumstances in specific patients when measurement of the anticoagulant effects of DOACs is required. Recently, anticoagulation therapy has received attention when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
  • 8.4K
  • 23 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Stonefish: venom components, pathology, distribution
There are five species of stonefish within the genus Synanceia: Synanceia horrida (previously referred to as S. trachynis), S. verrucosa, S. alula, S. nana and S. platyrhyncha. Synanceia spp. can grow 35–50 cm in length and have evolved grey and mottled skin to camouflage themselves amongst encrusted rocks and coral for predation and defense. Synanceia species have up to 15 dorsal fin spines that are erected when the fish is disturbed. Stings from this medically important group of fish are known to cause painful and lethal human envenomations. Stonefish are regarded as one of the most venomous fish in the world. Research on stonefish venom has chiefly focused on the in vitro and in vivo neurological, cardiovascular, cytotoxic and nociceptive effects of the venom.
  • 8.3K
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Tachypsychia is a neurological condition that alters the perception of time, usually induced by physical exertion, drug use, or a traumatic event. For someone affected by tachypsychia, time perceived by the individual either lengthens, making events appear to slow down, or contracts, objects appearing as moving in a speeding blur. It is believed that tachypsychia is induced by a combination of high levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, usually during periods of great physical stress or in violent confrontation. Interestingly, a controlled experiment from 2007 suggests the subjective experience of time slowing down is actually an artifact of memory, not an actual trait of real-time perception. However, newer research seems to contradict this, with results showing that during high stress events a focus on action preparation actually does increase information processing, slowing down time perception. A 2012 review of most current research (including the 2007 study) seems to support this as well. Due to the contradictory research results and difficulty of accurately replicating the natural conditions in which the phenomenon occurs, there is still no set consensus on how tachypsychia functions.
  • 8.2K
  • 07 Nov 2022
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