Topic Review
Fungal Urinary Tract Infection
Fungal urinary tract infections (FUTI) are mainly caused by Candida species. The urine can be an important specimen for the diagnosis of this kind of clinical condition since both the presence of fungi can be identified by urine microscopy and by uroculture and the cells that promotes the immune response against this kind of infectious agent can also be observed. This entry will focus on information related to FUTI and the urinary findings that can be detected during routine urinalysis that can contribute to the identification of this clinical condition.
  • 6112
  • 29 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Immunopeptidome
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) plays a crucial role in the development of adaptive immune response in vertebrates. MHC molecules are cell surface protein complexes loaded with short peptides and recognized by the T-cell receptors (TCR). Peptides associated with MHC are named immunopeptidome. The MHC I immunopeptidome is produced by the proteasome degradation of intracellular proteins. The knowledge of the immunopeptidome repertoire facilitates the creation of personalized antitumor or antiviral vaccines. A huge number of publications on the immunopeptidome diversity of different human and mouse biological samples - plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and solid tissues, including tumors - appeared in the scientific journals in the last decade. Significant immunopeptidome identification efficiency was achieved by advances in technology: the immunoprecipitation of MHC and mass spectrometry-based approaches.
  • 1165
  • 30 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous cells derived from bone marrow. They are precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages and/or granulocytes. They have the ability to significantly inhibit immune cell responses.
  • 874
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
The Role of Wnt
Alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway are associated with the advancement of cancers; however, the exact mechanisms responsible remain largely unknown. It has recently been established that heightened intratumoral Wnt signaling correlates with tumor immunomodulation and immune suppression, which likely contribute to the decreased efficacy of multiple cancer therapeutics. Here, we review available literature pertaining to connections between Wnt pathway activation in the tumor microenvironment and local immunomodulation. We focus specifically on preclinical and clinical data supporting the hypothesis that strategies targeting Wnt signaling could act as adjuncts for cancer therapy, either in combination with chemotherapy or immunotherapy, in a variety of tumor types.
  • 767
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
T Lymphocyte
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EV) of endosomal origin (multivesicular bodies, MVB) constitutively released by many different eukaryotic cells by fusion of MVB to the plasma membrane. However, inducible exosome secretion controlled by cell surface receptors is restricted to very few cell types and a limited number of cell surface receptors. Among these, exosome secretion is induced in T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes when stimulated at the immune synapse (IS) via T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR), respectively. IS formation by T and B lymphocytes constitutes a crucial event involved in antigen-specific, cellular and humoral immune responses. Upon IS formation by T and B lymphocytes with antigen-presenting cells (APC) the convergence of MVB towards the microtubule organization center (MTOC), and MTOC polarization to the IS, are involved in polarized exosome secretion at the synaptic cleft. This specialized mechanism provides the immune system with a finely-tuned strategy to increase the specificity and efficiency of crucial secretory effector functions of B and T lymphocytes. Since inducible exosome secretion by antigen-receptors is a critical and unique feature of the immune system this entry considers the study of the traffic events leading to polarized exosome secretion at the IS and some of their biological consequences.
  • 761
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Anti-Ro Antibodies and fetal complications
Maternal anti-Ro antibodies present during the fetal period can cause complications ranging from congenital heart block, fetal demise or long-term consequences. The anti-Ro induced autoimmune reaction causes long-term fibrosis and calcification of the conductive tissue. In addition, the CHB injury mechanisms were shown to involve other factors, like fetal susceptibility that increases for every subsequent pregnancy, from a 2% incidence in the case of nulliparous mothers. The predictive value of maternal anti-Ro antibodies for CHB high-risk pregnancy is low, and other markers are lacking, making this condition difficult to efficiently monitor. Moreover, the positive anti-Ro pregnancies do not benefit from a prophylactic treatment or from an efficient therapy once CHB was diagnosed. Thus, new data from ongoing trials are highly expected, to provide both potential biomarkers and therapeutic solutions. This entry illustrates the current understanding of the anti-Ro antibodies associated pathologies, from the perspective of specialists involved in its management, emphasizing key issues, missing links, and possible future directions for an effective interdisciplinary approach.
  • 746
  • 08 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Gastrointestinal Diseases in Primary Immunodeficiencies
In recent years, the incidence of immune-mediated gastrointestinal disorders, including celiac disease (CeD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is increasingly growing worldwide. It is well established that primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) exhibit gastrointestinal manifestations and mimic other diseases, including CeD and IBD. The most common PIDs in adults are the selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) and the common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, some differences concerning diagnostics and management between enteropathy/colitis in PIDs, as compared to idiopathic forms of CeD/IBD, have been described. There is an ongoing discussion whether CeD and IBD in CVID patients should be considered a true CeD and IBD or just CeD-like and IBD-like diseases. This review addresses the current state of the art of the most common primary immunodeficiencies in adults and co-occurring CeD and IBD.
  • 738
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Secretory IgA
Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the dominant antibody class in mucosal secretions, it is also present in saliva and breast milk. The majority of plasma cells producing SIgA are located within mucosal membranes lining the intestines, airway and reproductive tracts, as well as mammary gland. SIgA protects against the adhesion of pathogens and their penetration into the mucosal barriers. Moreover, SIgA regulates microbiota composition at mucosa sites and provides local homeostasis.
  • 737
  • 17 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection Hearing Loss
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces a clinical syndrome usually associated with hearing loss. However, the effect of acquired CVM infection in adults and children has not been clearly defined.
  • 723
  • 28 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Dietary Fibre from Virgin Sugarcane
Prebiotic dietary fibre (DF) has gained significant research attention owing to its reported potential in conferring health benefits through modulating gut microbiota composition and their metabolic activities. Complex dietary fibres from whole-plant sources are becoming recognised as vital parameters in influencing the gut microbial diversity in contrast to isolated or purified DF forms. In this entry, we review the recent evidence from in-vivo and clinical studies to support the significant prebiotic capacity of whole-plant virgin processed sugarcane fibre in countering gut inflammation and undesirable digestive symptoms.
  • 722
  • 16 Mar 2021
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