Topic Review
Anaphase Bridges
Anaphase bridges are DNA threads stretching between the two DNA masses as cells attempt to segregate them during anaphase. Anaphase bridges arise from unresolved DNA intertwines between sister chromatids. Sister chromatid intertwines (SCIs) naturally arise during DNA replication and represent a non-proteinaceous source of cohesion between sister chromatids. SCIs and are mainly resolved in S phase, although some do persist and must be fully removed during mitosis to allow faithful chromosome segregation and avoid the arising of DNA lesions and genome instability, a hallmark of cancer development. As complete resolution of SCIs only occurs during chromosome segregation, it is not clear whether intertwines that persist in mitosis are simply an unwanted leftover or whether they have a functional role.
  • 2282
  • 04 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Mesoamerican Genetic Studies
Mesoamerica is a historically and culturally defined geographic area comprising current central and south Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and border regions of Honduras, western Nicaragua, and northwestern Costa Rica. The permanent settling of Mesoamerica was accompanied by the development of agriculture and pottery manufacturing (2500 BCE–150 CE), which led to the rise of several cultures connected by commerce and farming. Hence, Mesoamericans probably carried an invaluable genetic diversity partly lost during the Spanish conquest and the subsequent colonial period. Mesoamerican ancient DNA (aDNA) research has mainly focused on the study of mitochondrial DNA in the Basin of Mexico and the Yucatán Peninsula and its nearby territories, particularly during the Postclassic period (900–1519 CE). 
  • 1635
  • 24 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Snijders Blok-Campeau Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, speech problems, and distinctive facial features.  
  • 1202
  • 23 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. 
  • 980
  • 24 Dec 2020
Topic Review
48,XXXY Syndrome
48,XXXY syndrome is a chromosomal condition in boys and men that causes intellectual disability, developmental delays, physical differences, and an inability to father biological children (infertility). Its signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals.
  • 955
  • 23 Dec 2020
Topic Review
FBLN5 Gene
Fibulin 5: The FBLN5 gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibulin-5. 
  • 836
  • 25 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Transplacental Gene Delivery
Transplacental gene delivery (TPGD) is a technique for delivering nucleic acids to fetal tissues via tail-vein injections in pregnant mice. After transplacental transport, administered nucleic acids enter fetal circulation and are distributed among fetal tissues. In 1995, TPGD was established by Tsukamoto et al., and its mechanisms, and potential applications have been further characterized since. In 2019, Nakamura et al. demonstrated that intravenous injection of plasmid DNA containing genome editing component (CRISPR/Cas9 system) produced indels in fetal myocardial cells. In the future, this unique technique will allow manipulation of fetal cell functions in basic studies of fetal gene therapy.
  • 828
  • 31 Jul 2020
Topic Review
10q26 Deletion Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.
  • 815
  • 26 Aug 2021
Topic Review
3p Deletion Syndrome
3p deletion syndrome is a condition that results from a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 3 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs at the end of the short (p) arm of the chromosome. This chromosomal change often leads to intellectual disability, developmental delay, and abnormal physical features.
  • 795
  • 23 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Childhood Asthma
Asthma is a complex and multifactorial respiratory disease with a high prevalence in the pediatric population. Variation in treatment response to asthma therapies has been described among patients, and difficult-to-treat asthma carries both high healthcare and socioeconomic burden to the patients and society. Omic studies can be used to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying asthma susceptibility and treatment response, contributing to a better knowledge and definition of asthma pathogenesis and therefore, to the development of precision medicine. This entry aims to summarize the recent findings of omic studies of treatment response in childhood asthma. Between 2018-2019 a total of 13 omic studies has been performed involving genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and the microbiome. These have been focused on the response to three common asthma medications: short-acting beta agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Novel associations of different biomarkers with asthma treatment response have been described. However, stronger evidence and more consistent results are required to implement these molecular biomarkers into clinical practice by establishing the most appropriate therapy for each patient.
  • 724
  • 29 Oct 2020
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