Topic Review
Extracellular Vesicles Mediated Regulation
Small noncoding RNAs (sRNA) appear to play a key role in extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated information transfer. Within the vesicular envelope, RNAs are well protected from degradation and can be shuttled between individuals from one and the same species and beyond. Various communication routes have been discovered such as mother-infant-interaction via breast milk, diverse host-pathogen-relations, and dietary uptake of food derived EVs, proving that EV-mediated inter-kingdom regulation is more than a random event.
  • 736
  • 23 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Breast cancer cell growth/motility is influenced by metal compounds
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a  highly "aggressive" malignant neoplasm with limited treatment options due to the lack of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2/neu. In search of novel molecules displaying anti-TNBC activities, the TNBC cell line MDA-MB231 was exposed to cadmium chloride and/or manganese chloride, and a biological characterization of the effect observed was performed. The data obtained demonstrate a cytotoxic effect exerted by cadmium chloride with drastic changes affecting gene expressions and production of reactive oxygen species. Conversely, manganese chloride was effective in increasing cell number and promoting cell invasive ability.  Such effect was reverted by coexposure with cadmium chloride. Thus, metal compounds appear to be able to modulate the biological behavior of TNBC cells, although addressing them to different fates. The data obtained suggest that high environmental pollution with manganese chloride might increase the risk of breast tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the restraining modulatory property of cadmium chloride looks promising and deserves a more detailed mechanistic study aimed to the identification of possible molecular targets instrumental in inhibiting the expansion of malignant breast cancer.
  • 658
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Weismann Barrier
The Weismann barrier has long been regarded as a basic tenet of biology. However, upon close examination of its historical origins and August Weismann's own writings, questions arise as to whether such a status is warranted. As scientific research has advanced, the persistence of the concept of the barrier has left us with the same dichotomies Weismann contended with over 100 years ago: germ or soma, gene or environment, hard or soft inheritance. 
  • 634
  • 30 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal cortex. Its major renal effect is to regulate electrolyte and water homeostasis in the distal tubule, thus maintaining blood pressure and extracellular fluid homeostasis through the activation of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in epithelial cells [2]. Aldosterone enters an epithelial cell and binds to the MR. The complex of aldosterone and MR translocates into the nucleus and regulates gene transcription of, among others, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the signaling proteins and kinases that impact channel and transporter activity, such as serum/glucocorticoid kinases (SGKs).
  • 617
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
CD4 T Helper Cells
CD4 T helper cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg and Tfh, play a central role in orchestrating adaptive immune responses.
  • 615
  • 16 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Autophagy in Glioma
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant and aggressive type of brain neoplasm, with a mean life expectancy of less 15 months after diagnosis, despite a diversity of treatments, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. The resistance of GBM to various therapies is due to a highly mutated genome; these genetic changes induce a de-regulation of several signaling pathways and result in higher cell proliferation rates, angiogenesis, invasion, and a marked resistance to apoptosis; this latter trait is a hallmark of highly invasive tumor cells, such as glioma cells. Due to a defective apoptosis in gliomas, induced autophagic death can be an alternative to remove tumor cells. Paradoxically, however, autophagy in cancer can promote either a cell death or survival. Modulating the autophagic pathway as a death mechanism for cancer cells has prompted the use of both inhibitors and autophagy inducers. The autophagic process, either as a cancer suppressing or inducing mechanism in high-grade gliomas is discussed in this section.  
  • 600
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Dermal Fibroblasts
Scarring and regeneration are two physiologically opposite endpoints to skin injuries, with mammals, including humans, typically healing wounds with fibrotic scars. We aim to provide an updated review on fibroblast heterogeneity as determinants of the scarring–regeneration continuum. We discuss fibroblast-centric mechanisms that dictate scarring–regeneration continua with a focus on intercellular and cell–matrix adhesion. Improved understanding of fibroblast lineage-specific mechanisms and how they determine scar severity will ultimately allow for the development of antiscarring therapies and the promotion of tissue regeneration.
  • 599
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Tetraspanins of extracellular vesicles
Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins with ability to interact with each other and with other non-tetraspanin partners, building up a complex called tetraspanin web. This dynamic structure participates in many cellular processes. Although currently, the tetraspanin proteins found in extracellular vesicles are mostly applied as markers, increasing evidence points to their role in extracellular vesicle biogenesis, cargo selection, cell targeting, and cell uptake under both physiological and pathological conditions.
  • 579
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Notch Signaling Function in Angiogenesis
The Notch signaling pathway is a major regulator of vascular morphogenesis, managing endothelial response to vascular growth factors, endothelial specialization, establishment and maintenance of vascular identity as venous or arterial and vascular maturation.
  • 544
  • 03 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Human Neural Stem Cell Systems
       Building and functioning of the human brain requires the precise orchestration and execution of myriad molecular and cellular processes, across a multitude of cell types and over an extended period of time. Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) represent the heart of these processes, since they increase the pool of neural progenitors and are the founders of all the neural progeny which will constitute the adult human brain.
  • 533
  • 30 Oct 2020
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