Topic Review
Enzymes for Lignin Depolymerization
Lignin, a rigid polymer composed of phenolic subunits with high molecular weight and complex structure, ranks behind only cellulose in the contribution to the biomass of plants. Therefore, lignin can be used as a new environmentally friendly resource for the industrial production of a variety of polymers, dyes and adhesives. Since laccase was found to be able to degrade lignin, increasing attention had been paid to the valorization of lignin. The enzymes involved in lignin depolymerization are mainly divided into four categories: laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP).
  • 22
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Bioferments are innovative ingredients extracted from natural raw materials by carrying out a fermentation process with appropriate strains of microorganisms. Mainly bioferments are made from plant-based raw materials. The spectrum of applications for bioferments is broad and includes properties such as skin whitening, antioxidant properties (blackberry, soybean, goji berry), anti-aging (red ginseng, black ginseng, Citrus unshiu peel), hydrating, and anti-allergic (aloe vera, skimmed milk).
  • 32
  • 04 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Problems Associated with Plant Micropropagation
The production of micropropagated plants in plant-tissue-culture laboratories and nurseries is the most important method for propagation of many economic plants. Micropropagation based on tissue-culture technology involves large-scale propagation, as it allows multiplication of a huge number of true-to-type propagules in a very short time and in a very limited space, as well as all year round, regardless of the climate.
  • 50
  • 04 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Molecular Markers
Fungi are amongst the most abundant and diverse organisms. Despite being widely known for their adverse role in food spoilage or as pathogens for humans, animals, or plants, they also present several beneficial effects. Fungi contribute to human well-being due to their role as decomposers, degrading decay matter into smaller molecules which can be easily used by other ecosystem members. These organisms can produce medicinal compounds or modulate protective immune responses in human intestine. Fungi intervene in diverse food processes or act as a food supply. Due to fungal diversity, the unequivocal identification of these organisms is crucial to increasing their practical applications and decreasing their adverse effects.
  • 24
  • 02 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Mutagens Applied to Microalgae for Random Mutagenesis
Microalgal biomass and metabolites can be used as a renewable source of nutrition, pharmaceuticals and energy to maintain or improve the quality of human life. Microalgae’s high volumetric productivity and low impact on the environment make them a promising raw material in terms of both ecology and economics. To optimize biotechnological processes with microalgae, improving the productivity and robustness of the cell factories is a major step towards economically viable bioprocesses. The success of a random mutagenesis approach using microalgae is determined by multiple factors involving the treatment of the cells before, during and after the mutagenesis procedure. Using photosynthetic microalgae, the supply of light quality and quantity, as well as the supply of carbon and nitrogen, are the most important factors. Besides the environmental conditions, the type of mutagen, its concentration and exposure time are among the main factors affecting the mutation result.
  • 41
  • 01 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Biological Control of Bulb Mites
Mites of the genus Rhizoglyphus (Acari: Acaridae) are serious pests of plants belonging to the orders Liliales and Asparagales such as onions, garlic, lilies, and tulips. Their control by synthetic pesticides is becoming problematic as a result of resistance development in these mites and environmental and health issues. New pest control methods thus need to be developed. Efforts to develop biological control programs for bulb mites have taken place in a number of countries. Several biocontrol agents have been tested against Rhizoglyphus spp. under laboratory and some also under field conditions. The most promising results have been obtained with acaropathogenic/entomopathogenic fungi and predatory mites as described below. Other possible prospective control agents attacking mites are viruses, bacteria, and protista, but except for some bacteria their efficacy against bulb mites has not been investigated yet.
  • 50
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Concentrations in Plant Cells
Environmental factors, such as high light intensity, adverse temperature, drought, or soil salinity, are summarized as abiotic stresses and discriminated from biotic stresses that are exerted by pathogens and herbivores, for instance. It was an unexpected observation that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common response to all kinds of stress investigated so far. ROS are important messengers in cell signaling, but exceeding a concentration threshold causes damage. This requires fine-tuning of ROS production and degradation rates. In general, there are two options to control cellular ROS levels, (I) ROS scavenging at the expense of antioxidant consumption and (II) enzyme-controlled degradation of ROS. As antioxidants are limited in quantity, the first strategy only allows temporarily buffering of a certain cellular ROS level. This way, it prevents spells of eventually damaging ROS concentrations. 
  • 35
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Single Cell Protein Production Using Different Fruit Waste
The single cell protein (SCP) refers to the dead, dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from the pure microbial culture of algae, bacteria, filamentous fungi, unicellular algae, and cyanobacteria cultivated on different carbon sources that are used as a protein supplement in human foods or animal feeds. Many studies reported that the wastes from various fruits such as orange, sweet orange, mango, banana, pomegranate, pineapple, grapes, watermelon, papaya, and many others are potential substrates for SCP production. These SCPs can be used as a protein supplement in human foods or animal feeds. 
  • 76
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
New Glycosylated Polyene Macrolides
Polyene macrolides are antifungal agents that are synthesized by actinomycetes and other bacteria. These compounds consist of macrolactone rings containing between three and eight conjugated double bonds. Most are glycosylated with a single aminodeoxysugar and specifically bind ergosterol in fungal cell membranes.
  • 27
  • 25 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Endophytes for Curtailing Advanced Glycation End Products
Endophytes, microorganisms that live in the internal tissues and organs of plants, are known to produce numerous bioactive compounds, including, at times, some phytochemicals of their host plant. So, endophytes have been quoted as a potential source for discovering bioactive compounds, particularly, of medical interest, including compounds that inhibit the formation or prevent an excessive accumulation of Advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The high levels of AGEs in body tissues are linked with the pathogenesis and development of some non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are threatening global human health, noticeably: diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and other ailments linked to chronic inflammation and ageing. For that reason, endophytes as a source of compounds able to reduce AGEs could represent a possible treatment alternative for some NCDs.
  • 56
  • 22 Jul 2022
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