Topic Review
Ionic Liquids in Liquid–Liquid Microextraction
Ionic liquids (ILs) are a new chemical medium and soft functional material developed under the framework of green chemistry and possess many unique properties, such as low melting points, low-to-negligible vapor pressures, excellent solubility, structural designability and high thermal stability. 
  • 27
  • 26 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Classical Nucleation Theory
Crystal nucleation determining the formation and assembly pathway of first organic materials is the central science of various scientific disciplines such as chemical, geochemical, biological, and synthetic materials. Classical nucleation theory (CNT)  applies to systems of small organic molecules with an emphasis on the molecular interpretation of nucleation kinetics. CNT holds that density fluctuations are concomitant with the development of crystalline order. In other words, a crystal nucleus has an identical structure to its bulk crystal. 
  • 31
  • 22 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Selected Fungal Natural Products with Antimicrobial Properties
Natural products (NPs) are a very rich source of antimicrobial drugs. They constitute more than two-thirds of clinically used antibiotics and half of anticancer drugs. Fungal natural products and their effects have been known to humankind for hundreds of years. Their later medicinal applications, followed by the discovery of the first class of antibiotics, penicillins and other drugs of fungal origin, such as peptidic natural products, terpenoids or polyketides, have altered the historically negative reputation of fungal “toxins”. 
  • 30
  • 21 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Copper-Catalyzed Intramolecular Borylative Coupling with Imines
Copper-catalyzed enantioselective borylative cyclization with various electrophiles via difunctionalization of unsaturated hydrocarbons is a powerful tool for the generation of interesting boron-containing carbocycles and heterocycles processes involving a chiral organocopper intermediate. Alkenes, allenes, and alkynes are versatile and easily accessible substrates that can be subjected to a wide range of reactions to produce densely functionalized, enantioenriched products.
  • 67
  • 17 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Electrochemical Methodologies for Plant and Fruit Extracts
The growing research interests in the applications of plant and fruit extracts (synthetic/stabilization materials for the nanomaterials, medicinal applications, functional foods, and nutraceuticals) have led to the development of new analytical techniques to be utilized for identifying numerous properties of these extracts. One of the main properties essential for the applicability of these plant extracts is the antioxidant capacity (AOC) that is conventionally determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Nowadays, electrochemical methodologies are emerging as alternative tools for quantifying this particular property of the extract. These methodologies address numerous drawbacks of the conventional spectroscopic approach, such as the utilization of expensive and hazardous solvents, extensive sample pre-treatment requirements, long reaction times, low sensitivity, etc. 
  • 39
  • 12 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Biocatalyzed Redox Processes Employing Green Reaction Media
Biocatalysis can be defined in a broad sense as the mediation of chemical reactions by means of biological systems, including isolated enzymes, whole cells or cell-free extracts. In some circumstances, the aqueous buffer medium normally employed in biocatalytic procedures is not the best option to develop these processes, due to solubility and/or inhibition issues, requiring biocatalyzed redox procedures to circumvent these drawbacks, by developing novel green non-conventional media, including the use of biobased solvents, reactions conducted in neat conditions and the application of neoteric solvents such as deep eutectic solvents. 
  • 40
  • 05 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Structure and Chemistry of 3(5)-Substituted Pyrazoles
Pyrazoles are known as versatile scaffolds in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry, often used as starting materials for the preparation of more complex heterocyclic systems with relevance in the pharmaceutical field. Pyrazoles are also interesting compounds from a structural viewpoint, mainly because they exhibit tautomerism. This phenomenon may influence their reactivity, with possible impact on the synthetic strategies where pyrazoles take part, as well as on the biological activities of targets bearing a pyrazole moiety, since a change in structure translates into changes in properties. Investigations of the structure of pyrazoles that unravel the tautomeric and conformational preferences are therefore of upmost relevance. 3(5)-Aminopyrazoles are largely explored as precursors in the synthesis of condensed heterocyclic systems, namely pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.
  • 39
  • 04 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Michael Addition of Carbonyl Compounds to α,β-Unsaturated Nitroalkenes
The proline-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition reaction of acetaldehyde with α,β-unsaturated nitroalkenes as synthetically useful routes to β-substituted derivatives of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA).
  • 54
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Synthesis of Fragrances via Cycloaddition or Formal Cycloaddition
Fragrances, short for fragrance ingredients, is a type of compounds with a sweet smell or pleasant odor that has wide applications in the fine chemical industry, especially in perfumes, cosmetics, detergents and food additives. Since the discovery of the Diels–Alder reaction, the cycloaddition of π reactants serves as one of the most powerful methods for the construction of carbocycles, which has a broad application in the fragrance industry.
  • 71
  • 21 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chilean Marine Algae
Chile is in the extreme southwestern part of America, and it has an extreme length, of approximately 4300 km that increases to 8000 km considering the Chilean Antarctic Territory. Despite the large extent of its coastal territory and the diversity of geographic environments and climates associated with Chilean coasts, the research on marine resources in Chile has been rather scarce. 
  • 72
  • 08 Jun 2022
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