Topic Review
Thiosugars of Biological Significance
Thiosugars are important compounds because of their structural complexity and crucial biological activities. Therefore, a series of methods are developed for their synthesis using new methods. Unlike, oxygen sugars, thiosugars are more stable and therefore, much scope exists to alter their structures by chemical manipulations. Notably, thiosugars can act as glycosyl donors as well as acceptors.  Many functionalized thiosugars occur naturally and are potential targets for therapeutics. Synthesis of thiosugars following convergent route is a challenge.  Over the years, scientists have explored thiosugars through numerous green and sustainable methods. These studies are highly significant and timely since it opens the door towards carbohydrate-based drugs.
  • 631
  • 25 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Molecules of the Week
"Molecules of the Week" is a new project to collect and show the discovery of novel molecules, compounds as well as the researchers' story behind it.
  • 621
  • 05 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Phosphorus fire retardants for polystyrene
Polystyrene, despite its high flammability, is widely used as a thermal insulation material for buildings, for food packaging, in electrical and automotive industries, etc. A number of modification routes have been explored to improve the fire retardance and boost the thermal stability of commercially important styrene-based polymeric products. The earlier strategies mostly involved the use of halogenated fire retardants. Nowadays, these compounds are considered to be persistent pollutants that are hazardous to public and environmental health. Many well-known halogen-based fire retardants, regardless of their chemical structures and modes of action, have been withdrawn from built environments in the European Union, USA, and Canada. This had triggered a growing research interest in, and an industrial demand for, halogen-free alternatives, which not only will reduce the flammability but also address toxicity and bioaccumulation issues. Among the possible options, phosphorus-containing compounds have received greater attention due to their excellent fire-retarding efficiencies and environmentally friendly attributes. Numerous reports were also published on reactive and additive modifications of polystyrene in different forms, particularly in the last decade; hence, the current article aims to provide a critical review of these publications. The authors mainly intend to focus on the chemistries of phosphorous compounds, with the P atom being in different chemical environments, used either as reactive, or additive, fire retardants in styrene-based materials. The chemical pathways and possible mechanisms behind the fire retardance are discussed in this review.
  • 603
  • 26 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Metabolic N-Dealkylation and N-Oxidation
Metabolic reactions that occur at alkylamino moieties may provide insight into the roles of these moieties when they are parts of drug molecules that act at different receptors. N-dealkylation of N,N-dialkylamino moieties has been associated with retaining, attenuation or loss of pharmacologic activities of metabolites compared to their parent drugs. Further, N-dealkylation has resulted in clinically used drugs, activation of prodrugs, change of receptor selectivity, and providing potential for developing fully-fledged drugs.
  • 600
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
DPPH· Stable Free Radical
DPPH· is 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl stable free radical. It was discovered in 1922.
  • 588
  • 24 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Furfuryl Alcohol
Furfuryl alcohol (FuOH, C4H3OCH2OH, 2-furylmethanol, 2-furancarbinol) has applications in the fabrication of foundry resins, the ingredient production of P-series fuels, in liquid alkanes and in food production. It is also a very important intermediate in fine chemical synthesis and the polymer industry, and it is used as a chemical intermediate for the synthesis of lysine, vitamin C and levulinic acid and employed as a lubricant and as a dispersing agent.
  • 574
  • 10 Oct 2020
Topic Review
The Molecular Electron Density Theory
The Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT) was proposed in 2016 as a  contemporary reactivity model in Organic Chemistry against the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) theory.
  • 556
  • 22 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Molecular Iodine-Catalyzed Reactions
Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences and Human Studies, Deanship of Research, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar 31952, KSA; Email:; In continuation of our research on the synthesis of diverse organic molecules, we report here molecular iodine-catalyzed diverse synthetic processes. These methods are efficient and produce products in high yield. The success of molecular iodine-catalyzed reactions depends on the release of hydroiodic acid in the reaction media.
  • 553
  • 01 Jun 2020
Topic Review
Polymeric Nanocapsules
Polymer-based nanocapsules have been widely studied as a potential drug delivery system in recent years. Nanocapsules—as one of kind nanoparticle—provide a unique nanostructure, consisting of a liquid/solid core with a polymeric shell. This is of increasing interest in drug delivery applications. In this review, nanocapsules delivery systems studied in last decade are reviewed, along with nanocapsule formulation, characterizations of physical/chemical/biologic properties and applications. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of nanocapsules applications are also proposed.
  • 538
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Beta Lactams and Products
Discovery and synthesis of penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics have received sustained attention. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is extensively documented in several thousand of publications. In modern times, microwave-induced reactions are also used extensively for the synthesis and stereochemical studies of diverse β-lactams. In this paper, the author describes a few crucial reactions that are performed toward the synthesis of β-lactams and products obtained from them under classical conditions as well as by domestic or automated microwave oven.
  • 515
  • 28 Oct 2020
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