Topic Review
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide
Once fundamental difficulties such as active sites and selectivity are fully resolved, metal-free catalysts such as 3D graphene or carbon nanotubes (CNT) are very cost-effective substitutes for the expensive noble metals used for catalyzing CO2. A viable method for converting environmental wastes into useful energy storage or industrial wealth, and one which also addresses the environmental and energy problems brought on by emissions of CO2, is CO2 hydrogenation into hydrocarbon compounds. The creation of catalytic compounds and knowledge about the reaction mechanisms have received considerable attention. Numerous variables affect the catalytic process, including metal–support interaction, metal particle sizes, and promoters. CO2 hydrogenation into different hydrocarbon compounds like lower olefins, alcoholic composites, long-chain hydrocarbon composites, and fuels, in addition to other categories.
  • 8
  • 25 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Magnetic Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications of Nucleic Acids
Magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs) combine the features of magnetic nanoparticles and a second material, which provide distinct physical, chemical, and biological properties. The magnetic core for nanocomposite synthesis is extensively used due to its high saturation magnetization, chemical stability, large surface area, and easy functionalization. Moreover, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic particle imaging (MPI), hyperthermia, and targeted drug and gene delivery by an external magnetic field. Numerous composing units exist, which leads to the outstanding application of composites. This entry focuses on nucleic acid-based bioapplications of MNCs with polymeric, organic, inorganic, biomolecules, and bioinspared surface coating. The unique types of nanocomposites as magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) properties are presented. This entry aims to discuss the features of nucleic acid-based MNC information available to researchers in this field and guide them through some problems in the area, structure variation, and surface functionalization possibilities. The most recent advancements of MNCs and imprinted polymers in nucleic acid-based therapy, diagnostics, theranostics, magnetic separation, biocatalytic, and biosensing are introduced.
  • 16
  • 25 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis for Fluorinated Aromatic Compounds
Fluorine-containing functional groups are important motifs influencing physical and biological properties of organic compounds. Visible-light photoredox catalysis as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules contributed significantly to the rapid progress of new synthetic procedures allowing introduction of fluorine atoms into organic substrates.
  • 20
  • 24 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Novel Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Production and Storage
Using hydrogen energy as an alternative renewable source of fuel is no longer an unrealized dream, it now has real-world application. The influence of nanomaterials on various aspects of hydrogen energy, such as hydrogen production, storage, and safety, is considerable.
  • 5
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Optical Biosensing of CA-125
Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is a well-known oncomarker in OC that has been widely used in the last three decades. CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (>200 kDa) generated by normal cells in adult tissues derived from coelomic and Müllerian epithelia. CA-125 levels of less than 35 U/mL in the human body are acceptable for normal cells. Women with advanced stages of OC often show an elevated level of CA-125. Some early-stage cancers can be diagnosed via detecting the cancer antigen CA-125, such as ovarian cancer, and required treatments can be applied more efficiently. Thus, detection of CA-125 by employing various optical or electrochemical biosensors is a preliminary and crucial step to treating cancers. 
  • 12
  • 22 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Materials for 3D Bio-Printing
The fast-developing field of 3D bio-printing has been extensively used to improve the usability and performance of scaffolds filled with cells. To further 3D-printing uses in tissue engineering, research on novel, suitable biomaterials with quick cross-linking capabilities is a prerequisite. A wider variety of acceptable 3D-printed materials are still needed, as well as better printing resolution (particularly at the nanoscale range), speed, and biomaterial compatibility.
  • 11
  • 22 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Electrospinning Inorganic Nanomaterials
Tissue engineering (TE) has attracted the widespread attention of the research community as a method of producing patient-specific tissue constructs for the repair and replacement of injured tissues. Different types of scaffold materials have been developed for various tissues and organs. The choice of scaffold material should take into consideration whether the mechanical properties, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bioresorbability meet the physiological properties of the tissues.
  • 15
  • 21 Jan 2023
Topic Review
The Electrohydrodynamic Method for Nanomaterial Production
Electrospinning is a versatile technique used to produce fibrous mats. The high surface area of the electrospun mats makes them suitable for applications in fields using nanoparticles. Electrospun mats are used for tissue engineering, wound dressing, water-treatment filters, biosensors, nanocomposites, medical implants, protective clothing materials, cosmetics, and drug delivery systems. 
  • 28
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Gelatin and Bioactive Glass Composites
Nano-/micron-sized bioactive glass (BG) particles are attractive candidates for both soft and hard tissue engineering. They can chemically bond to the host tissues, enhance new tissue formation, activate cell proliferation, stimulate the genetic expression of proteins, and trigger unique anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer functionalities. Composites based on biopolymers and BG particles have been developed with various state-of-the-art techniques for tissue engineering. Gelatin, a semi-synthetic biopolymer, has attracted the attention of researchers because it is derived from the most abundant protein in the body, viz., collagen. It is a polymer that can be dissolved in water and processed to acquire different configurations, such as hydrogels, fibers, films, and scaffolds.  
  • 20
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Intranasal Liposomes for Vaccine Delivery
Liposomes are safe, biocompatible, and biodegradable spherical nanosized vesicles produced from cholesterol and phospholipids. Liposomes have been widely administered intranasally for systemic and brain delivery. Intranasal liposomes are also a potential approach for vaccine delivery. Liposomes can be used as a platform to load antigens and as vaccine adjuvants to induce a robust immune response. 
  • 19
  • 20 Jan 2023
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