Topic Review
Preterm Birth and Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are defined by the Endocrine Society as “exogenous chemicals, or mixtures of chemicals, that interfere with any aspect of hormone action.” They are often widely present in many communities and can alter various hormonal processes in the body.  Preterm birth (PTB) is a problem of international concern, as it is the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years old, and the frequency is increasing in countries with reliable data
  • 8
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
SCUBA Diving in Adult Congenital Heart Disease
The classification of scuba diving as a skill sport has profound implications for the evaluation of fitness-to-dive in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD). The spectrum of ACHD and its associated complications range from conditions conventionally considered as incompatible with scuba diving (e.g., pulmonary hypertension, cyanosis and ventricular hypertrophy) to other conditions which may be compatible with recreational scuba diving. 
  • 7
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in Breast Cancer Medical Imaging
The heavy global burden and mortality of breast cancer emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging detection is one of the main tools used in clinical practice for screening, diagnosis, and treatment efficacy evaluation, and can visualize changes in tumor size and texture before and after treatment. The overwhelming number of images, which lead to a heavy workload for radiologists and a sluggish reporting period, suggests the need for computer-aid detection techniques and platform. In addition, complex and changeable image features, heterogeneous quality of images, and inconsistent interpretation by different radiologists and medical institutions constitute the primary difficulties in breast cancer screening and imaging diagnosis. The advancement of imaging-based artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted tumor diagnosis is an ideal strategy for improving imaging diagnosis efficient and accuracy. By learning from image data input and constructing algorithm models, AI is able to recognize, segment, and diagnose tumor lesion automatically, showing promising application prospects. Furthermore, the rapid advancement of “omics” promotes a deeper and more comprehensive recognition of the nature of cancer.
  • 10
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Copper and Copper/Zinc Ratio in Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients require a stable and sufficient supply of micronutrients. Since copper is an essential micronutrient for human development, studies are carried out to investigate the serum copper levels, serum copper/zinc (Cu/Zn) ratios, and their relationship with nutritional indicators in a group of CF patients. There was no significant correlation between the serum copper concentrations and respiratory and pancreatic function, respiratory colonization, and the results of the abdominal ultrasound. 
  • 37
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Air Pollution on Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Asthma
Redox regulation participates in the control of various aspects of metabolism. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species participate in many reactions under physiological conditions. When these species overcome the antioxidant defense system, a distressed status emerges, increasing biomolecular damage and leading to functional alterations. Air pollution is one of the exogenous sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is important because of its complex composition, which includes transition metals and organic compounds. Once in contact with the lungs’ epithelium, PM components initiate the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, macrophage activation, modulation of gene expression, and the activation of transcription factors, which are all related to the physiopathology of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancer. 
  • 24
  • 02 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Children
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern. It was believed that SARS-CoV-2 virus was much less likely affect children. Statistics show that children account for 2–13% of all COVID-19 patients in individual countries. In the youngest population, acute respiratory failure is not as serious a problem as complications after COVID-19, mainly pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS, MIS-C). Thirteen publications that quantitatively and qualitatively described the efficacy of HBOT application in the treatment of pediatric diseases were eligible among the studies; those relating to the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of children with COVID-19 and its complications were not found. The bibliographic review showed that hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be used in the treatment of children after carbon monoxide poisoning, with soft tissue necrosis, bone necrosis, after burns, or after skin transplant. No evidence supported by research has been found in scientific journals on the effectiveness of the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in children with a history of COVID-19 infection. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies with regard to the use of HBOT therapy in the treatment of children and to reduce the number of pediatric patients suffering because of complications after COVID-19.
  • 43
  • 02 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Physical Exercise and the Hallmarks of Breast Cancer
Growing evidence suggests that, among the different molecular/cellular pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cancer, there are 14 hallmarks that play a major role, including: (i) sustaining proliferative signaling, (ii) evading growth suppressors, (iii) activating invasion and metastasis, (iv) enabling replicative immortality, (v) inducing angiogenesis, (vi) resisting cell death, (vii) reprogramming energy metabolism, (viii) evading immune destruction, (ix) genome instability and mutations, (x) tumor-promoting inflammation, (xi) unlocking phenotypic plasticity, (xii) nonmutational epigenetic reprogramming, (xiii) polymorphic microbiomes, and (xiv) senescent cells. These hallmarks are also associated with the development of breast cancer, which represents the most prevalent tumor type in the world. For the first time, the effects of physical activity/exercise on these hallmarks are described. In summary, an active lifestyle, and particularly regular physical exercise, provides beneficial effects on all major hallmarks associated with breast cancer, and might therefore help to counteract the progression of the disease or its associated burden.
  • 32
  • 01 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Ordinary Teachers' Evidence-Based Intervention on Mental Health Literacy
The immediate effect of the intervention on promoting students’ mental health knowledge was significant, but the amount of delay effect is not significant. Ordinary classroom teachers can effectively participate in projects to improve students’ mental health literacy, significantly improve students’ mental health knowledge and attitudes towards psychological problems, and make up for the shortage of full-time mental health teachers in schools. More attention should be paid to students’ mental health literacy, and evidence-based intervention research should be strengthened. Furthermore, researchers can improve students’ mental health literacy and avoid poor mental health by addressing delays in early intervention, as well as improve experimental design, prolong the intervention time, and improve the effectiveness of the intervention.
  • 13
  • 01 Feb 2023
Topic Review
The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in IgA Nephropathy
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide today. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a polyprotein complex and an important participant in inflammation. The NLRP3 inflammasome participates in a variety of kidney diseases, including IgAN. 
  • 38
  • 31 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Gastrointestinal Ultrasound in Emergency Setting
Acute bowel diseases are responsible for more than one third of subjects who were referred to the emergency department for acute abdominal pain and gastrointestinal evaluation. Gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is often employed as the first imaging method, with a good diagnostic accuracy in the setting of acute abdomen, and it can be an optimal diagnostic strategy in young females due to the radiation exposure related to X-ray and computed tomography methods. The physician can examine the gastrointestinal system in the area with the greatest tenderness by ultrasound, thus obtaining more information and data on the pathology than the standard physical examination.
  • 23
  • 31 Jan 2023
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