Topic Review
Ankyloglossia as a Barrier to Breastfeeding
Ankyloglossia, commonly referred to as tongue-tie, brings about functional difficulties and, in some cases, may lead to early weaning. It is crucial to use breastfeeding as the exclusive food source for the first six months of an infant’s life, and the interference of the tongue contributes substantially to success in this regard. Even though there are many publications about ankyloglossia, there are still many controversies about its definition, diagnosis, classification, and treatment decision determined via frenotomy.
  • 52
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Just and Fair ICU Triage Process
Triage is a dynamic and complex decision-making process to determine fair access to medical care in mass casualty situations. Triage takes place through healthcare settings including Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Triage governing principles have been subject to ethical debates for a long time specifically with the recent global pandemic of COVID-19. 
  • 31
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Associations between Childhood Abuse and Adult Psychopathology
Research consistently shows that abuse during childhood is related to adult psychopathology. Adverse childhood experiences, including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, have been consistently linked to mental health problems in children and adults.
  • 12
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Lung Cancer Incidence and Socioeconomic Status
Lung cancer treatment and patient care continue to advance, yet concerns persist about whether these improvements are equally accessible to all socioeconomic groups. Socioeconomic disparities exist in lung cancer incidence, screening, effective treatment, overall survival, and prognosis. One of the key contributing factors to low socioeconomic status that is amenable to change is low education. Lower educational attainment is oftentimes linked to various factors, including smoking habits, unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, lower paid and unhealthier occupations, exposure to environmental pollutants, and genetic-familial risks, all contributing to an elevated incidence of lung cancer.
  • 83
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Ontology-Based Parkinson’s Disease Monitoring and Alerting with PHKG-GNNs
In the realm of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) research, the integration of wearable sensor data with personal health records (PHR) has emerged as a pivotal avenue for patient alerting and monitoring. This study delves into the complex domain of PD patient care, with a specific emphasis on harnessing the potential of wearable sensors to capture, represent and semantically analyze crucial movement data and knowledge. The primary objective is to enhance the assessment of PD patients by establishing a robust foundation for personalized health insights through the development of Personal Health Knowledge Graphs (PHKGs) and the employment of personal health Graph Neural Networks (PHGNNs) that utilize PHKGs. The objective is to formalize the representation of related integrated data, unified sensor and PHR data in higher levels of abstraction, i.e., in a PHKG, to facilitate interoperability and support rule-based high-level event recognition such as patient’s missing dose or falling. This paper, extending our previous related work, presents the Wear4PDmove ontology in detail and evaluates the ontology within the development of an experimental PHKG. Furthermore, this paper focuses on the integration and evaluation of PHKG within the implementation of a Graph Neural Network (GNN). This work emphasizes the importance of integrating PD-related data for monitoring and alerting patients with appropriate notifications. These notifications offer health experts precise and timely information for the continuous evaluation of personal health-related events, ultimately contributing to enhanced patient care and well-informed medical decision-making. Finally, the paper concludes by proposing a novel approach for integrating personal health KGs and GNNs for PD monitoring and alerting solutions.
  • 16
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Wearables for Monitoring and Postural Feedback
Wearables offer a promising solution for simultaneous posture monitoring and/or corrective feedback. Some wearables have the feature to provide real-time corrective sensory feedback when adopting inadequate postures. This feedback can be auditory (typically conveyed through diverse auditory channels), visual (usually displayed by screens or projectors), haptic (application of vibratory stimulus), or a combination of these, providing information based on performance or outcome.
  • 29
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
DNA Aptamers to Detect Vibrio spp.
Early and accurate diagnoses of pathogenic microorganisms is essential to correctly identify diseases, treating infections, and tracking disease outbreaks associated with microbial infections, to develop precautionary measures that allow a fast and effective response in epidemics and pandemics, thus improving public health. Aptamers are a class of synthetic nucleic acid molecules with the potential to be used for medical purposes, since they can be directed towards any target molecule. Currently, the use of aptamers has increased because they are a useful tool in the detection of specific targets. 
  • 35
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Brain Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficits after Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac arrest occurs as a result of a sudden stop of the heartbeat and its mechanical activity, which causes cessation of systemic circulation and blood flow in the brain, which triggers global brain ischemia. Brain neuropathology after cardiac arrest includes primary ischemic injury and secondary reperfusion injury, which occur sequentially, acutely during cardiac arrest and resuscitation, and chronically in the post-resuscitation stag.
  • 22
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
AI for Biomarker Analysis in Early Cancer Detection
Governments worldwide have prioritized multicancer early detection (MCED) for the better management of cancers. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a promising technology to enhance the performance of MCED. In the field of MCED, applying AI has also proven to be efficient in improving diagnostic performance. Harnessing AI has become a must-use technology in analyzing MCED data because MCED tools typically target tens of analytical targets. 
  • 20
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Third-Generation Antipsychotics and Lurasidone in Substance-Induced Psychoses Treatment
Substance-induced psychosis (SIP) is a psychiatric condition triggered by substance misuse or withdrawal, characterized by unique features distinct from those of primary psychotic disorders. These distinctive features include a heightened prevalence of positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, in addition to a spectrum of mood and cognitive disturbances. 
  • 22
  • 28 Feb 2024
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