Topic Review
Azadirachta indica (Neem) as a Potential Natural Active
Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a large tree that is native to India and is traditionally used due to its several properties, mainly to treat skin diseases, as well as its “herbicidal” activity. Its bark, leaves, seeds, fruits and flowers are widely used in medicinal treatment due to the presence of active secondary metabolites with biological effects, mainly limonoids and tetranortriterpenoids, such as azadirachtin. Thus, A. indica was studied in a variety of conditions, such as anticancer, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents, as well as a biopesticide. 
  • 238
  • 09 Jun 2022
Topic Review
People at risk of suicide tend to be isolated and cannot share their thoughts. For this reason, suicidal ideation monitoring becomes a hard task. Therefore, people at risk of suicide need to be monitored in a manner capable of identifying if and when they have a suicidal ideation, enabling professionals to perform timely interventions. This entry aimed to develop the Boamente tool, a solution that collects textual data from users’ smartphones and identifies the existence of suicidal ideation.
  • 177
  • 15 Apr 2022
Topic Review
2LARTH® Micro-Immunotherapy Treatment
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are two cytokines involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammation state characterizing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant advances in the treatment of this pathology have been made over the past ten years, partially through the development of anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies. However, major side effects still persist and new alternative therapies should be considered.
  • 474
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
A Framework for Developing Environmental Justice Indicators
Environmental justice (EJ) is a broad discipline that attempts to understand and redress unfair exposure to unhealthy environmental conditions. EJ is often made measurable with indicators, however the capabilities and the limitations of EJ indicators can be difficult for policy makers to understand. Useful EJ indicators are invariably made up of at least two measures from a combination of the environment, demography, epidemiology or procedures elements. Furthermore, the way that measures are combined determines the type of EJ indicator that is created, enabling different facets of an issue to be understood.  
  • 168
  • 12 Apr 2022
Topic Review
A Multifactorial Approach for Sarcopenia Assessment
Sarcopenia refers to a progressive and generalized weakness of skeletal muscle as individuals age. Sarcopenia usually occurs after the age of 60 years and is associated with a persistent decline in muscle strength, function, and quality. A comparison of the risk factors associated with sarcopenia based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (1 and 2) in Older People, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (1 and 2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia, and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health revealed no consistent patterns. Accordingly, the identification of a single risk factor for sarcopenia is unpredictable due to its “multifactorial” pathogenesis, with the involvement of a multitude of factors.
  • 208
  • 29 Dec 2021
Topic Review
A Systematic Approach to Healthcare Knowledge Management Systems
Big data in healthcare contain a huge amount of tacit knowledge that brings great value to healthcare activities such as diagnosis, decision support, and treatment. However, effectively exploring and exploiting knowledge on such big data sources exposes many challenges for both managers and technologists. A healthcare knowledge management system that ensures the systematic knowledge development process on various data in hospitals was proposed. It leverages big data technologies to capture, organize, transfer, and manage large volumes of medical knowledge, which cannot be handled with traditional data-processing technologies. In addition, machine-learning algorithms are used to derive knowledge at a higher level in supporting diagnosis and treatment.
  • 377
  • 13 May 2022
Topic Review
A2 Milk
Although milk consumption is increasing worldwide, in some geographical regions, its consumption has persistently declined. This fact, together with the increase in milk production prices, has caused both milk producers and the dairy industry to be immersed in a major crisis. Some possible solutions to this problem are to get people who do not currently consume milk to start drinking it again, or to market milk and dairy products with a higher added value. In this context, a type of milk called A2 has recently received attention from the industry. This type of milk, characterized by a difference in an amino acid at position 67 of the β-casein polypeptide chain, releases much smaller amounts of bioactive opioid peptide β-casomorphin 7 upon digestion, which has been linked to harmful effects on human health. Additionally, A2 milk has been attributed worse technological properties in the production of some dairy products. Thus, doubts exist about the convenience for the dairy industry to bet on this product. 
  • 218
  • 30 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Abortion in Times of COVID-19
The COVID-19 health emergency has thrown the health systems of most European countries into a deep crisis, forcing them to call off and postpone all interventions deemed not essential or life-saving in order to focus most resources on the treatment of COVID-19 patients. To facilitate women who are experiencing difficulties in terminating their pregnancies in Italy, the Ministry of Health has adapted to the regulations in force in most European countries and issued new guidelines that allow medical abortion up to 63 days, i.e., 9 weeks of gestational age, without mandatory hospitalization. This decision was met with some controversy, based on the assumption that the abortion pill could “incentivize” women to resort to abortion more easily.
  • 335
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Academic Emotions on Learning Effects
Academic emotions can have different influences on learning effects, but these have not been systematically studied. 
  • 1435
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Active and Assisted Living
Over the last decade, there has been considerable and increasing interest in the development of Active and Assisted Living (AAL) systems to support independent living. The demographic change towards an aging population has introduced new challenges to today’s society from both an economic and societal standpoint. AAL can provide an array of solutions for improving the quality of life of individuals, for allowing people to live healthier and independently for longer, for helping people with disabilities, and for supporting caregivers and medical staff. 
  • 664
  • 19 Nov 2021
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