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Lipsticks History, Formulations, and Production
Lipsticks are one of the most widely used cosmetic products. Social, psychological, and therapeutic benefits can be attained from using lipstick. The beauty and attractiveness of a person are enhanced as lipsticks colour the lips and protect them from the external environment.
02 Mar 2022
Detection and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
Latest weeks the humanity is faced with the spread of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 that causes a respiratory illness with high mortality rates, COVID-19. Since there is no approved treatment or vaccination against that specific coronavirus the reduce in virus spread is essential. That is based in the use of appropriate tools, enabling the accurate and early detection. Molecular biology and immunological techniques are widely used in order to predict the COVID-19 cases in a very short period of time. These are commonly based either in identification of the SARS-CoV-2’s genetic material or in detection of antibodies that have been produced by the immune system against the virus. Many of the above mentioned tests have been validated and approved by local authorities. However, there are much more companies that provide detection tests, without basic validation processes, contributing in non-precise data. The present review aim to analyze the most common platforms that are used in COVID-19 detection, analyzing their advantages and weaknesses. Therefore, each physician will be equipped with appropriate information required for each test.
29 Oct 2020
Honey and Atherosclerosis
Honey, a natural sweetener has been used universally as a complete food and in complementary medicine since early antiquity. Honey contains over 180 substances, including sugars mainly fructose and glucose, water and a plethora of minor constituents such as vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease occurring in the inner lining of arterial walls due to the progressive plaque formation. Multiple risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes and cigarette smoking.
29 Oct 2021
Application of Standardized Regression Coefficient in Meta-Analysis
The β coefficient is the estimate resulting from an analysis carried out on variables that have been standardized so that their standard deviations (and variances) are equal to one. Therefore, the standardized coefficient refers to how many standard deviations the response or outcome variable will change per a standard deviation increase in the explanatory or predictor variable. Thus, the standardized coefficient β can be regarded as an attempt to make regression coefficients more comparable, and can be used as an effect-size estimate when the exposure levels in original studies are measured in different units of measurement.
14 Sep 2022
Nonparametric Limits of Agreement
The assessment of agreement in method comparison and observer variability analysis of quantitative measurements is usually done by the Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement, where the paired differences are implicitly assumed to follow a normal distribution. Whenever this assumption does not hold, the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles are obtained by quantile estimation. In the literature, empirical quantiles have been used for this purpose. In this simulation study, we applied both sample, subsampling, and kernel quantile estimators as well as other methods for quantile estimation to sample sizes between 30 and 150 and different distributions of the paired differences. The performance of 15 estimators in generating prediction intervals was measured by their respective coverage probability for one newly generated observation. Our results indicated that sample quantile estimators based on one or two order statistics outperformed all the other estimators and can be used for deriving nonparametric Limits of Agreement. For sample sizes exceeding 80 observations, more advanced quantile estimators, such as the Harrell-Davis and estimators of Sfakianakis-Verginis type, which use all the observed differences, performed likewise well, but may be considered intuitively more appealing than simple sample quantile estimators that are based on only two observations per quantile.
27 Oct 2020
Plastic Waste Governance in Bangladesh
Plastic, an offer of modernity, is presenting a massive threat in altered forms, to our health and environment. Plastic does not only pollute the surface environment, fresh water, and marine ecosystems, but toxic elements released from plastics also percolate down the surface and contaminate groundwater, which we often use as ‘safe’ drinking water. This probable future risk is deeply rooted in the entire governance infrastructure of plastic waste which could potentially lead to contamination of groundwater. A recent study finds 81% of tap water samples collected worldwide contained plastic pollutants, which means that annually we may be ingesting between 3000 and 4000 microparticles of plastic from tap water.
04 Mar 2022
Academic Emotions on Learning Effects
Academic emotions can have different influences on learning effects, but these have not been systematically studied.
28 Sep 2021
Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM)
The Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) is innovative as most behavioral theories only model single activity. The CCAM, however, models different single activities—such as physical activity and nutrition —and how they change as a result of one another. Such lifestyle activities are assumed to be formed by higher-level goals, which can drive activity volitionally or unconsciously, and are rather unspecific. They become specific because of activities that are subjectively seen as leading to this goal. Each activity must be intended, pursued, and controlled. Specific resources ensure that individuals have the chance to translate their intentions into activity and that they resist distractors. Compensation and transfer (also called carry-over) operate between the different activities. If people devote all of their energy to one domain and believe that no resources remain for the other activity, compensation can help to attain goals. It is also possible that an individual successfully performs one activity, and existing or developing resources may be transferred to another activity.
16 Dec 2020
Indoor Air Quality in Healthcare Units
Indoor air quality (IAQ) in Healthcare Units is a complex and dynamic issue of utmost importance for patient safety and occupational health purposes, since healthcare providers, medical practitioners, staff and patients spend long hours in the facilities subject to their inherent air quality. IAQ is affected by outdoor air quality, indoor activities, indoor occupant density, ventilation practices, indoor intrinsic emissions (e.g., equipment/furniture/coatings). The presence of vulnerable individuals and the characteristics of the ongoing activities highlight the importance of adequately managing IAQ in healthcare facilities. Headaches, fatigue, dryness and irritation of the eyes and skin are common complaints of healthcare professionals, which have often been associated with poor IAQ. In addition, hospitals operate on a full-time basis (24 h per day, seven days a week), with no idle time to recover from activities’ emissions and consequent impact on IAQ.
20 Jan 2022
Artemisia- Antiviral and Immunomodulation Effects
Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
30 Sep 2021
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Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
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Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
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