Topic Review
Organizational Environment
The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization. These forces may hamper or facilitate the organization’s access to resources, which means they can both offer opportunities and pose threats. Moreover, while these resources are valuable for the organization, they are also scarce (Riggio, 2018). The forces encompassed by the concept of the organizational environment include, among others, competition between rivals to retain customers, fast-paced changed in technology, and an increase in the price of raw materials. All these factors may somehow erode an organization’s competitive advantage. Consequently, the forces at play in the environment can influence the organization’s behavior (Truxillo, Bauer & Erdogan, 2016). 
  • 18018
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Participative Decision Making (PDM)
Participative decision making (PDM) is the opportunity for an employee to provide input into the decision-making process related to work matters (i.e., work organization, task priority) or organizational issues, for example, when they have a say on promoting new strategy ideas. Elele and Fields state that PDM is a management initiative based on the ”theory Y”, which suggests that employees are interested in being committed and performing well if managers value their contributions in making decisions that affect the nature of work. The diverse opportunities to participate in the decision-making process can provide mutual benefits for employees and employers. Some writers have proposed that PDM enhances motivation, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. The literature frames employee participation in different contexts, depending on the political, social, and legal environment of the countries.
  • 3358
  • 05 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Adaptive Reuse of Architectural Heritage
       Significant architectural and historical monuments become an important point of reference for the local population, increasing their sense of security, and act as a factor shaping social identity. An effort to preserve relevant objects in a city is therefore important both for retaining its unique features and for strengthening the local community. A significant role plays here the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage, which allows for the preservation of architectural objects that are important to the local community, promoting the integrity and historical continuity of the city while restoring the objects’ functional and economic value.         The introduction of a new function in architectural heritage is not only an important impulse for the tangible regeneration of urban tissue, but can also help to reconstruct the image and identity of a city. The local cultural and architectural heritage plays a significant role in the process leading to the creation of positive references and elimination of negative connotations related to an economic or social crisis. These remain an important part of the history of a city and, at the same time, its significance may be reimagined and shown in a new context, that relates to the present day. As a result, artefacts of the past gain new meanings, which are subject to a different, contemporary interpretation through the prism of current needs and ideas. Objects or even groups of objects from the past are being consciously taken into consideration in the activities currently undertaken. The contemporary scale of the phenomenon and complexity of the issues concerning the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage are a consequence of the multi-faceted transformations that have taken place in recent decades in the social, cultural and economic spheres, and, consequently, the contemporary understanding of the role and significance of the architectural heritage.
  • 3106
  • 31 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social science research. The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). 
  • 2827
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Digitalisation of organisations and COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic caused profound shifts in the functioning of organisations, with the increased mobilisation of the implementation of digitalisation processes in the activities of the members of these coordinated collective units. In this perspective, based on our academic experience and recent literature, this paper offers some dimensions that seem to us relevant to ponder with special urgency, and that will shape both organisations in the near future and an organisational culture that is, in many cases, renewed.
  • 2062
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Emerging Technologies
According to G. Veletsianos, from a general point of view, an emerging technology is “a new tool with promising potential”. However, an emerging technology is generally defined according to the field in which it is analyzed. B.R. Martin describes an emerging technology as a technology the use of which will benefit many sectors of the economy and/or society. Other important characteristics of emerging technology, according to D. Rotolo, D. Hicks and B. R. Martin, include radical novelty, relatively fast growth, coherence, and prominent impact. Which refers to the crucial following contexts: aspect of future time, anticipation, uncertainty and Industry 4.0. the following definition of an emerging technology has been created by the author – „Emerging technology in Industry 4.0 is a technology the development of which, from today’s point of view, is uncertain and not obvious, but through complex anticipatory research, it is possible to identify its potential radical impact in selected areas, e.g., social, technological, economic, scientific.”
  • 1846
  • 10 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Smart Tourism Management Framework
This entry firstly suggests a workable definition for the Smart Tourism Management Framework. Secondly, it presents the key elements of this ST management framework at destination level. It is completed by outlining the current state of academic research in this field and suggesting directions for future research endeavours.
  • 1301
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Smart Farming
Smart farming: the technological innovation adoption in agriculture requires an innovative conceptualization and management of the several resources in light of the increasingly being available data. An example of an innovative methodology and criteria capable of organizing data and exploiting such information to optimize the use of technologies and primary resources used in production processes is presented
  • 1225
  • 18 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Six-Gear Roadmap towards Smart Factory
The fourth industrial revolution is the transformation of manufacturing into smart manufacturing. Advanced industrial digital technologies that make the trend Industry 4.0 are considered as the transforming force that will enable this transformation. However, these technologies need to be connected, integrated and used effectively to create value and to provide insights for data driven manufacturing. Smart manufacturing is a journey and requires a roadmap to guide manufacturing organizations for its adoption. The proposed roadmap is a simple holistic management strategy for an Industry 4.0 implementation journey. It serves as a strategic practical tool for rapid adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies. It bridges the gap between the advanced technologies and their application in manufacturing industry, especially for SMEs.
  • 1178
  • 06 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Business Environment and Competitive Advantages
       Tourism destination competitiveness reflecting the generic characteristics should be considered diversified to notice the distinctive perspective between the business environment and competitive advantages. Criticism of some prior conventional literature stems from the lack of a rigorous process to find the structure and attributes of the measurement items for a destination’s business environment and competitive advantages. The available theoretical framework and measures containing the destination business environment and competitive advantages warrant further investigation. The vital dimensions of the destination business environment (i.e., dynamism,hostility,turbulence,investment,information technology,and governance) and destination competitive advantages (i.e., defensiveness, local acceptance, accessibility, reasonability, uniqueness, supportiveness, and image sustainability) were successfully identified through quantitative and empirical analysis, which could provide a significant basis for managerial and policy decisions in the tourism industry.
  • 1133
  • 03 Nov 2020
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