Topic Review
Prosumption as Basic Market Force in Modern Economy
The term “prosumption” is a portmanteau of production and consumption. It refers to a process where a consumer takes over some of the activities previously performed by a producer, usually by directly involving themselves in the design and production of various goods or services. Prosumption is the basic market force in the modern economy.
  • 18
  • 07 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Energy Sector and the Global Economy
The future of the energy sector is an urgent topic nowadays, as the survival of humanity and each of researchers depends on it. This sector is part of a larger whole, i.e., of the national or global economy, and it determines its growth. This became particularly obvious recently as it has become necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the total energy balance to stop global warming, which is the source of climate change.
  • 19
  • 07 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Fixed Book Price Agreement
A fixed book price agreement (FBPA) is a form of resale price maintenance applied to books. It commonly takes the form of an agreement between publishers and booksellers which set the prices at which books were to be sold to the public. An example of an FBPA was the former Net Book Agreement in the United Kingdom . The key idea of an FBPA is to promote non-price competition between booksellers in order to promote the sale of little-known, difficult or otherwise culturally interesting books rather than catering only to blockbuster readers. To do so, an FBPA is deemed to ensure that the booksellers that provide the corresponding presale services are able to recoup their higher costs with a guaranteed margin on blockbusters. A related case is the existence of a fixed book price law (FBPL), where the book prices are kept fixed by law. An example of an FBPL is the current Lang Law in France . An FBPA/FBPL, with various provisos, has existed in some developed countries since the beginning of the twentieth century. It remains in force in roughly half the countries of the European Union as well as in some other countries.
  • 7
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
History of the Euro
The euro came into existence on 1 January 1999, although it had been a goal of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors since the 1960s. After tough negotiations, particularly due to opposition from the United Kingdom, the Maastricht Treaty entered into force in 1993 with the goal of creating an economic and monetary union by 1999 for all EU states except the UK and Denmark (even though Denmark has a fixed exchange rate policy with the euro). In 1999 the currency was born virtually and in 2002 notes and coins began to circulate. It rapidly took over from the former national currencies and slowly expanded behind the rest of the EU. In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty finalised its political authority, the Eurogroup, alongside the European Central Bank.
  • 16
  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Offshore Software R&D
Offshore Software R&D is the provision of software development services by a supplier (whether external or internal) located in a different country from the one where the software will be used. The main reason behind companies using offshore software development services is the higher development cost of the local service providers. The global software R&D services market, as contrasted to ITO and BPO, is rather young and currently is at a relatively early stage of development.
  • 18
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Earthquake Catastrophe Bond Pricing
The potential for economic losses due to earthquakes keeps increasing due to the development of the socioeconomic system and urbanization. The disaster management funds are insufficient to cover the losses suffered. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative funding mechanism linked to the financial market, such as catastrophe bonds.
  • 26
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Chicago Stock Exchange
The Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX) is a stock exchange in Chicago , Illinois, US. The exchange is a national securities exchange and self-regulatory organization, which operates under the oversight of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The Chicago Stock Exchange is currently located at 440 South LaSalle Street (FOUR40). Founded on March 21, 1882, the Chicago Stock Exchange merged with the regional stock exchanges St. Louis Stock Exchange, Cleveland Stock Exchange and Minneapolis-St. Paul Stock Exchange to form the Midwest Stock Exchange in 1949. In 1959, the New Orleans Stock Exchange became part of the Midwest Stock Exchange, and in the early 1960s the Midwest Stock Exchange Service Corporation was established to provide centralized accounting for member firms. In 1993 it changed its name back to the Chicago Stock Exchange.
  • 21
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Supply-Chain Optimization
Supply-chain optimization is the application of processes and tools to ensure the optimal operation of a manufacturing and distribution supply chain. This includes the optimal placement of inventory within the supply chain, minimizing operating costs (including manufacturing costs, transportation costs, and distribution costs). This often involves the application of mathematical modelling techniques using computer software.
  • 10
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Usury
Usury (/ˈjuːʒəri/) is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender. The term may be used in a moral sense—condemning, taking advantage of others' misfortunes—or in a legal sense, where an interest rate is charged in excess of the maximum rate that is allowed by law. A loan may be considered usurious because of excessive or abusive interest rates or other factors defined by a nation's laws. Someone who practices usury can be called a usurer, but in contemporary English may be called a loan shark. In many historical societies including ancient Christian, Jewish, and many modern Islamic societies, usury meant the charging of interest of any kind and was considered wrong, or was made illegal. During the Sutra period in India (7th to 2nd centuries BC) there were laws prohibiting the highest castes from practicing usury. Similar condemnations are found in religious texts from Buddhism, Judaism (ribbit in Hebrew), Christianity, and Islam (riba in Arabic). At times, many nations from ancient Greece to ancient Rome have outlawed loans with any interest. Though the Roman Empire eventually allowed loans with carefully restricted interest rates, the Catholic Church in medieval Europe, as well as the Reformed Churches, regarded the charging of interest at any rate as sinful (as well as charging a fee for the use of money, such as at a bureau de change). Religious prohibitions on usury are predicated upon the belief that charging interest on a loan is a sin.
  • 39
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Financial Technology Influence on the Banking Industry
The synthesis of technology and finance is known as financial technology (Fintech), which brings together two of the biggest industries in harmony. Fintech disruption is a deviation from the norm, resulting in a significant shift in banking services and, as a result, risk. 
  • 62
  • 17 Nov 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 11
Top
Feedback