Topic Review
Working Capital and Wine Industry
Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of wine is from ancient China (c. 7000 BC), Armenia (6000 BC), Persia (5000 BC), and Italy (4000 BC). 
  • 354
  • 07 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Women’s Leadership on Carbon Disclosure
The energy sector is one of the primary sources of carbon emissions and the most significant global polluter. Women’s concerns and the climate crisis were strongly associated when issues about climate change were first articulated in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals stressing gender equality and climate mitigation actions have received very little attention in the last decade.
  • 172
  • 12 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Whistleblowing Maturity Framework
Empirical research identifies whistleblowing as one of the most effective internal antifraud controls. Very recently, Directive 1937/2019 became effective in the EU, aiming to deal with the defragmentation of whistleblowing legislation among the member states and provide common minimum accepted standards.
  • 311
  • 31 May 2023
Topic Review
Volatility and Risk-Adjusted Returns of ESG Indices
The importance of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) aspects in investment decisions has grown significantly in today’s volatile financial market. Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing has emerged as a prominent investment strategy, garnering widespread attention. 
  • 219
  • 27 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Virtual Currency
Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community. The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission has warned investors against pump and dump schemes that use virtual currencies. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), a bureau of the US Treasury, defined virtual currency in its guidance published in 2013. In 2014, the European Banking Authority defined virtual currency as "a digital representation of value that is neither issued by a central bank or a public authority, nor necessarily attached to a fiat currency, but is accepted by natural or legal persons as a means of payment and can be transferred, stored or traded electronically". By contrast, a digital currency that is issued by a central bank is defined as "central bank digital currency".
  • 1.1K
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Village Business Sustainability in Indonesia
Village-owned enterprises are expected to be a forum for village business groups to develop their economic potential. The village-owned enterprises runs a business that resembles the business fields of the villagers. This situation has unconsciously created a sense of competition for both parties. The atmosphere of competition between the two business entities has the potential to hinder the growth of the village’s local economy. Village-owned enterprises evaluate their business activities and build a cooperation network for the sustainability of rural businesses.
  • 103
  • 28 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Vectoring & Fractalisation Of Fiscal Stress
Never before like pan global contagion pandemic COVID-19 has intensely up-regulated stress on the indo money-market domains.  Authors try to see the light at end of tunnel. Consider direct finance to consumers as the anti-dote; termed as fractalisation; vectoring; and granulation of stress. Heritage structure as cue and parable. Identify the internal causes of an obstinate stress causers and Ayurvedic sector as the green field opportunity.  
  • 723
  • 14 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Various Monetary Aggregates Impact on the Real Economy
Monetary policy elements in Romania were adjusted on the basis of volatility indicators for the annual inflation rate, which for August 2022 increased by 0.3% from the previous month’s level (from 13% to 13.3%). On the other hand, the influence of rising inflation through the consumer index and trade shocks was felt at the European level in the euro area, with the inflation rate reaching 10% in September 2022.
  • 145
  • 12 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Values of Cryptocurrencies Affected by COVID-19
Cryptocurrencies have become a popular economic and financial topic. When a cryptocurrency is defined as a digital currency, it is very different from a fiat currency because cryptocurrencies are not issued by any judicial body. Generally, a cryptocurrency does not have any original intrinsic value; however, it has an extrinsic value that is totally dependent on the expectation that future investors will be willing to pay for it in the cryptocurrency market. 
  • 329
  • 01 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Usury
Usury (/ˈjuːʒəri/) is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender. The term may be used in a moral sense—condemning, taking advantage of others' misfortunes—or in a legal sense, where an interest rate is charged in excess of the maximum rate that is allowed by law. A loan may be considered usurious because of excessive or abusive interest rates or other factors defined by a nation's laws. Someone who practices usury can be called a usurer, but in contemporary English may be called a loan shark. In many historical societies including ancient Christian, Jewish, and many modern Islamic societies, usury meant the charging of interest of any kind and was considered wrong, or was made illegal. During the Sutra period in India (7th to 2nd centuries BC) there were laws prohibiting the highest castes from practicing usury. Similar condemnations are found in religious texts from Buddhism, Judaism (ribbit in Hebrew), Christianity, and Islam (riba in Arabic). At times, many nations from ancient Greece to ancient Rome have outlawed loans with any interest. Though the Roman Empire eventually allowed loans with carefully restricted interest rates, the Catholic Church in medieval Europe, as well as the Reformed Churches, regarded the charging of interest at any rate as sinful (as well as charging a fee for the use of money, such as at a bureau de change). Religious prohibitions on usury are predicated upon the belief that charging interest on a loan is a sin.
  • 1.1K
  • 22 Nov 2022
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