Topic Review
Urban Vulnerability
Urban vulnerability can be defined as the process produced by the combination of many disadvantaged dimensions in which any possibility of upward social mobility, and overcoming social condition exclusions, is extremely hard to achieve. Usually, the more vulnerable and distressed areas lack basic services and have a higher number of obsolete buildings, unfavorable social characteristics, vulnerable people, and more prominent gender differences. 
  • 517
  • 26 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Participatory Methods for Urban Development
Despite the fact that vulnerable communities are the most affected by unplanned cities, considerably less attention has been given to involving them in urban development in order to ensure equitable outcomes. In this regard, there is an urgent need for governments to introduce and enforce processes that allow citizens, including vulnerable communities, to participate in development planning and policymaking. However, at present, there is a lack of guidance for practitioners regarding the definition of a clear purpose of community engagement and the selection of appropriate participatory methods to fulfil the set purpose. This study provides a thorough account of the participatory methods that can be used to achieve various engagement goals throughout the urban development process. This structured literature review used 71 reports published from 2000 to 2020. The review revealed 34 participatory methods, wherein most of the methods are devoted to informing, consulting and involving communities, whilst only a few methods are available for interactive public participation that supports true collaboration and empowerment. The study identified 12 purposes of community engagement in urban development, and mapped the 34 participatory methods for achieving them. The analysed case studies showed that the current community engagement practices are mainly in the pre-design and briefing stages of the urban development processes, and that most projects are aiming to achieve the ‘inform’ and ‘consult’ levels of engagement, with a few aiming to achieve the ‘involve’ and ‘collaborate’ levels. This study shows that community engagement is often overlooked during the professional design, development and post-development phases. The paper presents an onion model which can be used by practitioners to choose appropriate participatory methods based on the intended urban development phase, the engagement level and the purpose of the community engagement.
  • 474
  • 16 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Smart City 4.0 Development
The concept of the Smart City emerged as an effect of the research into smart urban environments. The term ‘smart city’ is understood as a city having a certain intellectual ability, which refers to innovative sociotechnical and socioeconomic aspects of growth. It has six dimensions: a smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living, and smart governance. Smart Cities 4.0 remain hyper-connected, as they use technology, data and engagement of citizens, but they use it to achieve the objectives of sustainable development.
  • 365
  • 21 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Visual Values in Landscapes
The term “landscape” can have different meanings depending on the field of study. For a geomorphologist, for example, the landscape represents the Earth’s surface and is considered as the result of the formational physical processes. Meanwhile, a landscape ecologist would consider a landscape in the light of interactions that once took place or now take place within it. The focus on the interaction is equally felt behind the definition of the landscape provided by the European Landscape Convention (ELC), which considers a landscape as “an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors”(art. 1). This definition combines three significant aspects of the landscape: its geographical origins, anthropogenic modifications, and human perception. Visual values in landscapes are strictly related to human perception: they exist because they are perceived. 
  • 313
  • 25 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Urban Land Suitability
Urban land suitability could be evaluated from the aspects such as the imbalance of the existing land-use structure and function distribution, along with the scarcity of land resources, so as to provide people with more a rational use of land service space.
  • 261
  • 26 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Kitakyushu (Japan) of Industrial Heritage Tourism
Japan, Asia’s earliest industrialized country, has been transforming into a post-industrialized society. A large number of former industrial heritages in Japan have been well protected. Three industrial heritages have been listed in World Heritage by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). Moreover, Japan has the largest number of centennial enterprises in the world, reaching 25,321, much more than that of North America and Europe. Compared with other industrialized countries, Japan’s industrial heritages are generally owned by long-lived enterprises, some of these spaces are still in service. Therefore, centennial enterprises often become the most direct stakeholders in the protection of industrial heritages, and play a key role in the transformation into new industrial space for cultural and touristic activities. In other words, under the influence of centennial enterprises, the development of industrial heritage tourism in Japan generally has strong path dependence.
  • 247
  • 13 Dec 2021
Topic Review
A Connected Community Approach to Building Community Resilience
Urban resilience research is recognizing the need to complement a mainstream preoccupation with “hard” infrastructure (electrical grid, storm sewers, etc.) with attention to the “soft” (social) infrastructure issues that include the increased visibility of and role for civil society, moving from (top-down, paternalistic) government to (participatory) governance. Analyses of past shock events invariably point to the need for more concerted efforts in building effective governance and networked relations between civil society groupings and formal institutions before, during, and after crisis. However, the literature contains little advice on how to go about this. A Connected Communities Approach is advanced that offers the missing guidance, and it's key features are explained.
  • 243
  • 20 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Improvement in Durability and Service of Asphalt Pavements
Develop a pavement design procedure that allows calibrating the design variables of asphalt pavements using regionalized conditions, to obtain efficient pavement performance for developing countries with limited resources and data.
  • 240
  • 13 May 2022
Topic Review Video
The Image of the Smart City
The image of the city was first introduced by Kevin Lynch in 1960, and referred to the ways in which urban space is perceived by their users, and how these acts are based on mental maps, whose elements can be put into well-defined categories: paths, nodes, edges, districts, and landmarks.
  • 213
  • 16 Feb 2022
Topic Review
The Pandemic City
Pandemics have shaped the way cities are planned and configured. Throughout history, cities have evolved to solve problems of sanitation, hygiene, and health access while providing space and opportunities for the urban dwellers.
  • 208
  • 30 Mar 2021
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