Topic Review
Anger in Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Anger is considered one of the basic emotions together with fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the prototypical chronic pain conditions. Anger has been associated with increased pain perception, but its specific connection with FMS has not yet been established in an integrated approach. Anger might be a meaningful therapeutic target in the attenuation of pain sensitivity, and the improvement of the general treatment effects and health-related quality of life in FMS patients.
  • 216
  • 23 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Anticipatory Mourning and Narrative Meaning-Making in Breast Cancer
Breast cancer (BC) in women under 50 is a potentially traumatic experience that can upset a woman’s life during a crucial phase of her lifespan. Anticipatory mourning linked to the diagnosis of BC can produce a series of inevitable losses similar to those of the bereaved. Narration can be one tool to construct meaning, to grow through the experience, and reconfigure time perspectives during and after the illness. 
  • 87
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Attention-Setting and Human Mental Function: An Introduction
Adapted from the longer article  [url link to original article] This entry provides an introduction to experimental research on top-down human attention in complex scenes, written for cognitive scientists in general. The entry emphasizes effects of human goals and intention on mental function, measured with behavioral experiments. Top-down attention is described as attention-setting — an open category of skillful mental actions that initiate particular task sets, which are assembled from a wide range of mental processes. Experimental research on visual search, task switching, and temporal attention is outlined and extended to the important human time scale of seconds.
  • 65
  • 21 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Awe and Prosocial Behavior
Although awe has been shown to increase prosocial behavior, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and about this relationship during unique periods. Awe can significantly positively predict prosocial behavior and can also indirectly predict prosocial behavior through the presence of meaning in life. These associations are moderated by the perceived social support. Specifically, the positive relationship between awe and the presence of meaning in life was only significant for college students with low perceived social support and the positive relationship between the presence of meaning in life and prosocial behavior was stronger for college students with high perceived social support.
  • 37
  • 27 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Bayesian Analysis in Social Sciences
Given the reproducibility crisis (or replication crisis), more psychologists and social-cultural scientists are getting involved with Bayesian inference. Therefore, the current article provides a brief overview of programs (or software) and steps to conduct Bayesian data analysis in social sciences. 
  • 300
  • 23 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Bayesian Mindsponge Framework
Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF, also known as Bayesian Mindsponge analytical approach) is an analytical approach that employs the mindsponge information-processing mechanism and Bayesian analysis (e.g., bayesvl package) as each other’s complement to conduct cognitive and psychological research. 
  • 442
  • 19 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Cognition
Cognition is the acquisition of knowledge by the mechanical process of information flow in a system. In animal cognition, input is received by the sensory modalities and the output may occur as a motor or another response. The sensory information is internally transformed to a set of representations which is the basis for cognitive processing. This is in contrast to the traditional definition based on mental processes and originating from metaphysical philosophy.
  • 1104
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Cognitive Biases, Risk Perception, and Risky Driving Behaviour
This study evaluated the relationship between drivers’ cognitive biases (i.e., optimism bias, illusion of control) and risky driving behaviour. It also investigated the mediational role of risk perception in the relationship between cognitive biases and self-reported risky driving. 
  • 83
  • 18 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Cognitive Control in Young and Older Adults
The dual mechanisms of control framework (DMC) proposes two modes of cognitive control: proactive and reactive control. The proactive control mode is an early selection process that actively maintains task context over time to minimize interference whereas the reactive control mode is a late correction process that serves to resolve interference, at the time of its occurrence. Young adults primarily use a more proactive control mode, but older adults tend to use a more reactive control.  
  • 83
  • 13 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Coping Strategies and Prevention of Cyberbullying
Cyberbullying behaviours begin at primary school, so the actions taken by pre-teachers will play a key role in achieving the goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. More specifically, active coping strategies are essential in reducing victimisation. There is great importance of designing and implementing training programmes to prevent and/or reduce cyberbullying as part of student primary school teachers’ education. One promising way of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in schools is to encourage pre-service teachers to use active strategies to intervene in cyberbullying and to abandon ineffective strategies in their future professional lives. It is important that pre-service teachers’ knowledge of effective coping strategies is enhanced and that any beliefs justifying cyberbullying are deconstructed.
  • 51
  • 31 May 2022
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