Topic Review
Cognition is the acquisition of knowledge by the mechanical process of information flow in a system. In animal cognition, input is received by the sensory modalities and the output may occur as a motor or another response. The sensory information is internally transformed to a set of representations which is the basis for cognitive processing. This is in contrast to the traditional definition based on mental processes and originating from metaphysical philosophy.
  • 1105
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Bayesian Mindsponge Framework
Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF, also known as Bayesian Mindsponge analytical approach) is an analytical approach that employs the mindsponge information-processing mechanism and Bayesian analysis (e.g., bayesvl package) as each other’s complement to conduct cognitive and psychological research. 
  • 442
  • 19 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Embodied 'Basic' Emotions in Chinese and English Language
References to the body are one feature shared across languages, particularly when describing the mental processes of emotion, reflecting the embodiment of an emotional experience. Embodied emotion concepts encompass these categorized outcomes of bidirectional brain–body interactions yet can be differentiated further into afferent or interoceptive and efferent or autonomic processes. Between languages, a comparison of emotion words indicates the dominance of afferent or interoceptive processes in how embodied emotions are conceptualized in Chinese, while efferent or autonomic processes feature more commonly in English. Correspondingly, in linguistic expressions of emotion, Chinese-speaking people are biased toward being more receptive, reflective, and adaptive, whereas native English speakers may tend to be more reactive, proactive, and interactive. 
  • 357
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Trust in Science and COVID-19
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of particular importance during this period.
  • 316
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Bayesian Analysis in Social Sciences
Given the reproducibility crisis (or replication crisis), more psychologists and social-cultural scientists are getting involved with Bayesian inference. Therefore, the current article provides a brief overview of programs (or software) and steps to conduct Bayesian data analysis in social sciences. 
  • 300
  • 23 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Understanding Sexual Agency
Debates on human agency, not least female and sexual agency, have permeated the social scientific literature and health educational practice during multiple decades now. This article provides a review of recent agency debates, illustrating how criticisms of traditional conceptions of (sexual) agency have led to a notable diversification of the concept. We propose a comprehensive, inclusive description of sexual agency, focusing on the navigation of goals and desires in the wider structural context, and acknowledging the many forms sexual agency may take. We argue there is no simple relation between sexual agency and sexual health. We propose the following description: Sexual agency refers to a continuum of dynamic, everyday, situated modalities of action related to sexuality in which agents navigate (contrarieties between) personal goals, desires and preferences on the one, and personal living conditions, normative expectations and the wider structural context on the other hand. A diversity of internal (e.g. self-identification) and/or external goals (e.g. maintain social relationships or challenge the status quo) motivate and direct sexually agentic behavior. Sexual agency may aim for change as well as for endurance, continuity and stability. It may be overt or tacit. It varies with individual (e.g. temporal orientation) as well as situational variables (e.g. novelty). Sexual agency may reproduce but also resist and renegotiate (aspects of) prevailing norms and the status quo. There is no simple relation between sexual agency and sexual health or well-being. Modalities of action as well as the constructiveness of their (multiple) effects always depend on personal frames of reference as well as on the opportunities and restrictions provided by the (immediate and distant) personal and structural context, including moral and ideological frameworks and dominant sexual stories.
  • 272
  • 21 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Social Physique Anxiety Scale
Social physique anxiety (SPA) is the anxiety experienced when a person believes they are being observed or judged on their appearance; it is considered to be a subtype of social anxiety.
  • 250
  • 21 Oct 2021
Topic Review
The Effect of Parental Styles on Social Skills
Parental educational styles have a significant effect in personal development. These styles (authoritative, democratic, permissive and neglectful) can be related to affects and social skills at the individual level. The results suggest that parenting styles are closely related to affects and social skills. It is also suggested that affects play a mediating role in the relationship between parenting styles and social skills.
  • 239
  • 23 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Interventions for Treatment of Eco-Anxiety
As climate change worsens and public awareness of its grave impact increases, individuals are increasingly experiencing distressing mental health symptoms which are often grouped under the umbrella term of eco-anxiety. Interventions for the treatment of eco-anxiety are proposed.
  • 222
  • 29 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Anger in Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Anger is considered one of the basic emotions together with fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the prototypical chronic pain conditions. Anger has been associated with increased pain perception, but its specific connection with FMS has not yet been established in an integrated approach. Anger might be a meaningful therapeutic target in the attenuation of pain sensitivity, and the improvement of the general treatment effects and health-related quality of life in FMS patients.
  • 216
  • 23 Feb 2022
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