Topic Review
Livelihood Vulnerability
Livelihood vulnerability can be a function of both physiological and social factors [9]. Physiological vulnerability is the extent to which communities are exposed to physical effects such as sea-level rise and an increase in sea temperature, and/or atmospheric temperature. Such exposure to climate change increases rural livelihood vulnerability and reduces households’ ability to cope with climate risks, shocks, and stress. Rural households often have limited assets and thus adaptive capacity. The social vulnerability can include factors such as relative inequality, culture, the degree of urbanisation, and the rate of economic growth.
  • 963
  • 15 Jul 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Role of Happiness when Evaluating Society
Happiness, or life satisfaction, has become an important factor when considering what should be the objective of a society. Understanding the nature of happiness is thus important. The text offers a biological—specifically evolutionary—framework, which suggests that happiness can be described as the net impact of positive and negative feelings. It follows that a key issue is to explain what these feelings are about. The present situation and options for improving the score of happiness are discussed.
  • 284
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) amongst Adolescents in Schools
Adolescence is a stage of development that is impacted by a number of factors including relationships with peers, parent and teachers. A condition such as Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), which impedes those relationships due fear about social interactions, has detrimental impact on adolescent development. Through the review of recent studies, this paper will explore the use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and the school-based program, Skills for Social and Academic Success (SASS), with adolescents experiencing SAD. A review of the assessment and diagnostic process for SAD is provided which explores the limitations and gaps within current assessment processes. Suggestions for more developmentally informed assessment processes are considered. The paper will also outline the role which schools can play in the detection and treatment of SAD amongst an adolescent population. Furthermore, the outcomes of those interventions are considered herein.
  • 175
  • 15 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Volunteers Nature Conservation Motivational Factors
Global biodiversity is under pressure from human activities, and the effort for nature conservation and restoration and the allocation of economic resources for biodiversity policies remain insufficient. In such a context, volunteers can play an important role as a resource in nature conservation projects if their recreational activities interact with the objectives of nature management. Ensuring that volunteers remain motivated and engaged is crucial for the success of conservation projects. Five motivational factors determine the engagement of the volunteers, namely social, nature value, instrumental, identification, and personal benefit.
  • 174
  • 23 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Youth Empowerment for Sustainable Development
Youth, generally defined as young people aged between 15 and 24, are a key population. Their empowerment as members of our societies is vital for the societal ecosocial transition from a human-centered to an ecosocial focus, in pursuit of Sustainable Development (SD) and the United Nations “The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In relation to sustainability, ecosocial transition is a holistic perspective with ecological, economic, and social dimensions of development focusing on the interlinkage between social and ecological sustainability.
  • 145
  • 21 Apr 2022
Topic Review
The “Sustainable Development” Conundrum
Sustainability has become a buzz word in popular discourse, especially around environmental sustainability. Sustainability indicates that a system has the ability to be maintained and renewed within a normal balance of lifecycles, not becoming depleted or extinct. Defining sustainability as merely about the natural environment is incomplete as it ignores the social systems that intertwine with the environment. These social systems are the elements that determine whether the broad ecological system is sustainable. Social systems include worldviews, culture, economics, politics, family, and community subsystems, each contributing to overall sustainability. 
  • 144
  • 27 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Non-Governmental Organisations and Sustainable Community Development
Alternative healthcare, community development, social justice, and education are all areas where non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are increasingly being recognised or promoted, but these efforts are hampered by government inefficiency and resource constraints. However, the statement of non-profit organisations is more complicated than simply comparing them to the government, as they may also suffer from a lack of resources and ineffective management, just like the government. Meanwhile, NGOs are generally defined by four characteristics: they are voluntary, non-partisan, non-profit, and non-criminal. According to Salamon and Anheier, seven distinct characteristics were used to categorise and differentiate NGOs. The seven characteristics are as follows: (1) formal (officially registered and governed); (2) private (having a separate organisation from the government); (3) non-profit distributing (different from the objectives of establishing a business organisation); (4) self-governing (privately managed); (5) voluntary (worked voluntarily); (6) non-religious (not motivated by preaching); and (7) non-political (not involved in promoting candidates in elections). These characteristics are particularly useful for identifying and differentiating NGOs from other organisations.
  • 142
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Development of Emergency Intimate Partner Violence Shelters
When a woman seeks emergency shelter from an abusive relationship, she may bring her children but rarely companion animals. Companion animals are viewed as problematic, as obstacles to their clients’ safe relocation, falling outside the scope of IPV shelters (who rarely take a co-sheltering approach), and as potential strains on an already resource-stretched social institution. Addressing a gap in the literature about the effects of companion animal policies in social housing on clients and staff, the results are relevant to social service providers and policymakers working with multispecies families, including insights about women and children’s reactions to separation from companion animals, contradictions in related policies, and institutional priorities.
  • 135
  • 15 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Early Childhood Resilience and Later School Outcomes
The longitudinal associations between early childhood resilience profiles (low emotional and behavioral resilience, low cognitive resilience, multi-domain resilience) and school outcomes (academic achievement; emotional and behavioral school engagement) among children involved with the U.S. child welfare system are examined. Overall, the lasting effects of early resilience into the later childhood years are indicated, demonstrating the virtuous cycles of resilience. At the three-year follow-up assessment, children with low emotional and behavioral resilience profiles and children with the multi-domain resilience profile at baseline (aged 3-5 years) had significantly higher basic reading skills, reading comprehension, and math reasoning compared to children with low scores on the cognitive resilience profile. Researchers results suggest the need for early identification of and intervention for children with low cognitive or emotional/behavioral resilience during the preschool years to promote academic success and school engagement during the school-age years.
  • 124
  • 23 May 2022
Topic Review
Human Resources during COVID-19
This study investigates the effect of COVID-19 lockdowns and non-lockdown phases on managers and employees in the Czech Republic in the year 2020. The Czech Republic came through the first COVID-19 wave in spring 2020 with low case numbers, but became one of the countries with the highest case incidences in the second autumn wave in Europe. The study focused on examining the differences of perceptions on digital readiness of the company, working style, and mental health variables of working personnel in lockdown and non-lockdown phases. Data was obtained by an online survey conducted monthly from March-2020 to December-2020 with the same questions each month. Collected data consisted of respondents’ basic information on the actual situation, on perceptions on company and technology and on perceptions of the own mental state in the given month, retrieved from a pool of employees and managers from the Czech Republic machine and equipment manufacturers’ industry. Statistical analysis was conducted with the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordinal variables to check for significant differences in perceptions during 2020. Results show that managers in general and telecommuting-experienced workers in particular are better able to adapt to forced home office, while telecommuting-inexperienced employees struggle to adapt positively even with increasing company support and with an increasing digital team communication.
  • 115
  • 14 Sep 2021
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