Topic Review
Inferred Mechanical Forces Taking Place in the Bud
Floral organs develop within a bud enclosed by previously formed organs, leaves, and axes. The tight junction among structures and the observation of contact margins and associated shapes in the bud suggest the influence of forces on the flower configuration. The rationale here is that the sections of the floral bud that are under higher pressure are delayed in the inception and growth of an organ or prevented from initiating, while areas with less pressure would have a more rapid organ initiation and growth. The occurrence and reach of these forces can be categorized as: 1. Effects of bracts and inflorescence axis pressing against the flower meristem; 2. Effects of involucra in flowers, floral units, and inflorescences; 3. Within-flower organ interaction.
  • 136
  • 06 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer
Successful oncologic resection in rectal cancer relies on the surgical tenants of wide local excision of the disease to establish clear margin status and resection of adequate lymph nodes for staging. The introduction of, and adherence to, complete total mesorectal excision, which is the resection of the total mesorectal envelope containing the local lymphatic drainage of the rectum, has contributed a large part to the improved operative outcomes and long-term survival for rectal cancer patients. Notably, total mesorectal excision has produced a notable reduction in rectal cancer recurrence by 30 to 40%.
  • 99
  • 06 Apr 2022
Topic Review
History of Human Movement Studies
Knowing the genesis of ideas is important to understand why we are studying a topic. This topic review is an historical excursus about the origin of movement studies, following the ideas of Aristotle until positivism. The main ideas at the origin of biomechanical studies are historically reviewed, with special focus on the enlightment era. Key figures at the origin of movement studies were presented, together with the main ideas they introduced, most of which are still at the basis of modern research in the field of biomechanics. The entry can be of interest for all professionals working in the field of human and animal movement studies.
  • 343
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Corneal Sensory Nerves
The cornea is an avascular connective tissue that is crucial, not only as the primary barrier of the eye but also as a proper transparent refractive structure. Corneal transparency is necessary for vision and is the result of several factors, including its highly organized structure, the physiology of its few cellular components, the absence of blood and lymphatic vessels in healthy conditions, the tightly controlled hydration state, and the lack of myelinated nerves, among others. The cornea is supplied by both sensory and autonomic nerves, being one of the most densely innervated tissues in the body. Corneal innervation is anatomically organized into four levels ranging from the nerve trunks in the corneal stroma to the nerve terminals in the epithelium. Electrophysiological recordings of corneal sensory nerve fibers have revealed the existence of three different functional types of sensory neurons that are classified into mechanonociceptors, polymodal nociceptors and cold thermoreceptors depending on the modality of stimuli by which they are activated. The impulse discharge is conducted by these neurons to the central nervous system, where sensory input is processed to finally evoke a sensation and to regulate ocular protective functions, such as tearing and blinking.
  • 278
  • 21 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Fluorescence Microscopy to Aanalyze Lignin
Lignin is one of the most studied and analyzed materials due to its importance in cell structure and in lignocellulosic biomass. Because lignin exhibits autofluorescence, fluorescence microscopy methods have been developed that allow it to be analyzed and characterized directly in plant tissue and in samples of lignocellulose fibers. Compared to destructive and costly analytical techniques, fluorescence microscopy presents suitable alternatives for the analysis of lignin autofluorescence. The existing qualitative methods are Epifluorescence and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy; however, other semi-qualitative methods have been developed that allow fluorescence measurements and to quantify the differences in the structural composition of lignin. The methods are fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, two-photon microscopy, Föster resonance energy transfer, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, total internal reflection fluorescence, and stimulated emission depletion. With these methods, it is possible to analyze the transport and polymerization of lignin monomers, distribution of lignin of the syringyl or guaiacyl type in the tissues of various plant species, and changes in the degradation of wood by pulping and biopulping treatments as well as identify the purity of cellulose nanofibers through lignocellulosic biomass.
  • 256
  • 21 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Ocular Alterations and Neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is one of the main neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. Unfortunately, AD shares many similarities with other dementias at early stages, which impedes an accurate premortem diagnosis. Therefore, it is urgent to find biomarkers to allow for early diagnosis of the disease. There is increasing scientific evidence highlighting the similarities between the eye and other structures of the CNS, suggesting that knowledge acquired in eye research could be useful for research and diagnosis of AD. For example, the retina and optic nerve are considered part of the central nervous system, and their damage can result in retrograde and anterograde axon degeneration, as well as abnormal protein aggregation. In the anterior eye segment, the aqueous humor and tear film may be comparable to the cerebrospinal fluid. Both fluids are enriched with molecules that can be potential neurodegenerative biomarkers. Indeed, the pathophysiology of AD, characterized by cerebral deposits of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau protein, is also present in the eyes of AD patients, besides numerous structural and functional changes observed in the structure of the eyes. Therefore, all this evidence suggests that ocular changes have the potential to be used as either predictive values for AD assessment or as diagnostic tools.
  • 200
  • 09 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Telocytes in the Rainbow Trout Intestinal Stem-Cell Niche
Histological and ultrastructural studies revealed peculiar mesenchymal cells adjacent to the epithelium that generated an intricate mesh spanning from the folds’ base to their apex. Their voluminous nuclei, limited cytoplasm and long cytoplasmic projections characterized them as telocytes (TCs). 
  • 123
  • 10 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Methodology and Neuromarkers for Cetaceans’ Brains
Cetacean brain sampling may be an arduous task due to the difficulty of collecting and histologically preparing such rare and large specimens. Thus, one of the main challenges of working with cetaceans’ brains is to establish a valid methodology for an optimal manipulation and fixation of the brain tissue, which allows the samples to be viable for neuroanatomical and neuropathological studies.
  • 127
  • 09 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) has been long thought of as a functional equivalent to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting blood flow into the spinal cord. The spinal cord is supported by various disc tissues that provide agility and has different local immune responses compared to the brain. Though physiologically, structural components of the BSCB and BBB share many similarities, the clinical landscape significantly differs. 
  • 334
  • 14 Jan 2022
Topic Review
CD44
CD44, a non-kinase cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein, has been widely implicated as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in several cancers. Cells overexpressing CD44 possess several CSC traits, such as self-renewal and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) capability, as well as a resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • 209
  • 28 Dec 2021
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