Topic Review
Entry includes definition of overtourism phenomenon around the world with following literature references both historical and current research.
  • 4454
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Feminist Political Economy
Feminist political economy is a concept from feminist material scholarship.  It connects market relations with domestic relations. It examines the roles of women, tensions related to women’s paid and unpaid work, how production and reproduction issues affect women, and the interactions at the micro, meso, and macro level contexts within women's lives.  
  • 2204
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Urban Modelling
Urban Modelling is an approach to abstracting reality in an effort to demonstrate, classify and explain urban functions in a simplified manner.  There is a long history of modelling in urban studies.  Today's models have become more quantitative, computation, and require large data sets and intense computation due to the complex nature of modern cities. 
  • 2109
  • 07 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Vegetation Optical Depth
The vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameterizes the extinction (attenuation & scattering) effects due to the vegetation affecting the microwave radiations propagating through the vegetation canopy. It is retrieved from both passive and active microwave remotely sensed observations. It is related almost linearly to the vegetation water content and indirectly to vegetation water status and biomass. It has been retrieved from several satellites operating at different frequencies and provides a long-term record of the vegetation dynamics over land surfaces since 1978. VOD is complementary to classically used vegetation indices derived from multi-spectral images but it is less affected by sun illumination and atmospheric effects than optical vegetation indices.
  • 1574
  • 27 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Qihao Weng
Qihao Weng, a Fellow of AAAS, IEEE, and ASPRS, is the Director of the Center for Urban and Environmental Change and a Professor of Geography at Indiana State University, and had worked as a Senior Fellow at the NASA from 2008 to 2009. He received his Ph.D. degree in geography from the University of Georgia in 1999. Weng is currently the Lead of the Group on Earth Observation’s (GEO) Global Urban Observation and Information Initiative, and serves as an Editor-in-Chief of the ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
  • 528
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Professor Dr. Murayama is a geographer.
  • 516
  • 19 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Urban Food Market Development Post-Covid
Congestion of cities following rapid urbanization is a global concern that has necessitated global initiatives such as the Sustainable Development Goal 11 (SDG 11), which focuses on making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Decongestion efforts so far have focused on evicting street vendors from public spaces, and this had short-lived results because the traders spontaneously return to the streets as soon as the enforcement activities cease. Little attention has been paid to food market decongestion and development, whereby food markets are provided water facilities, wash bays, public toilets, upgraded stalls and other facilities that will ensure the safe use of the market place. This entry discusses the broader benefits of food market decongestion and development, including the prevention of the spread of COVID-19. The entry further discusses the considerations of public-private partnerships in food market decongestion and development.   
  • 477
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Climate Change Maladaptation
Maladaptation is caused by adaptation that fails to reduce vulnerability or inadvertently increases it. Maladaptation can be defined as: ''maladaptation occurs when short-term strategies increase vulnerability in the long term'' or ''action taken ostensibly to avoid or reduce vulnerability to climate change that impacts adversely on, or increase the vulnerability of other systems, sectors, or social groups.''
  • 471
  • 29 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Human Mobility and Smart City
Human mobility, the movement of human beings in space and time, reflects the spatial-temporal characteristics of human behavior. With big data analytics, human mobility research can be used to facilitate smart city development, in multiple disciplines such as smart traffic, smart urban planning, smart health, smart safety, smart commerce, etc. A framework for linking international academic research and city-level management policy was established and applied to the case of Hong Kong. Literatures regarding human mobility research using big data are reviewed. These studies contribute to (1) discovering the spatial-temporal phenomenon, (2) identifying the difference in human behaviour or spatial attributes, (3) explaining the dynamic of mobility, and (4) applying to city management. Then, the application of the research to smart city development are scrutinised based on email queries to various governmental departments in Hong Kong. With further improvement in the practical value of data analytics and the utilization of data sourced from multiple sectors, paths to achieve smarter cities from policymaking perspectives are highlighted.
  • 446
  • 06 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Water on Mars
To assess Mars’ potential for both harboring life and providing useable resources for future human exploration, it is of paramount importance to comprehend the water situation on the planet. Therefore, studies have been conducted to determine any evidence of past or present water existence on Mars. While the presence of abundant water on Mars very early in its history is widely accepted, on its modern form, only a fraction of this water can be found, as either ice or locked into the structure of Mars’ plentiful water-rich materials. Water on the planet is evaluated through various evidence such as rocks and minerals, Martian achondrites, low volume transient briny outflows (e.g., dune flows, reactivated gullies, slope streaks, etc.), diurnal shallow soil moisture (e.g., measurements by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander), geomorphic representation (possibly from lakes and river valleys), and groundwater, along with further evidence obtained by probe and rover discoveries. One of the most significant lines of evidence is for an ancient streambed in Gale Crater, implying ancient amounts of “vigorous” water on Mars. Long ago, hospitable conditions for microbial life existed on the surface of Mars, as it was likely periodically wet. However, its current dry surface makes it almost impossible as an appropriate environment for living organisms; therefore, scientists have recognized the planet’s subsurface environments as the best potential locations for exploring life on Mars. As a result, modern research has aimed towards discovering underground water, leading to the discovery of a large amount of underground ice in 2016 by NASA, and a subglacial lake in 2018 by Italian scientists. Nevertheless, the presence of life in Mars’ history is still an open question. In this unifying context, the current review summarizes results from a wide variety of studies and reports related to the history of water on Mars, as well as any related discussions on the possibility of living organisms' existence on the planet.
  • 358
  • 06 Feb 2022
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