Topic Review
"Montology" is the holistic, integrative and transdisciplinary science of mountains, inclusive of physical, social, theoretical and empirical disciplines, as well as humanities and arts associated with mountainscapes.
  • 311
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Sense of Belonging
A sense of belonging is a conjunctive interchange between the interests and the influences that guide our relationship to place. A sense of belonging is also its result: it is the formation of identity and of personhood, through participating in the production of place. To belong is a need of those experiencing place, but we can understand a sense of belonging as developed through the need to become part of the place through associative elements of kinship: responsibility to care for and strengthen place and the ability to subsist through place.
  • 309
  • 20 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Commuter Interdependence
The comprehensive research framework is divided into two phases, namely assessment and abatement, each of which involves a method that has been developed on the basis of an analytical framework. The vehicle emission estimation method, in the assessment phase, is built on the basis of the ‘Institution of Sustainability’ (IoS) framework to assess vehicle emission levels and identify all potential traffic-related sources influencing such emissions. Field experiments are designed, in the abatement phase, on the basis of the ‘Institutions and Development’ (IAD) framework to analyse the ‘near-to-real’ commuter interdependence, with respect to demand-based, non-technical measures in the experiment arrangement.
  • 305
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
NHRE Deployment
Despite globally progressing energy transition, the deployment of non-hydropower renewable energy (NHRE) in developing countries varies by country and overall is moderate. This entry aims to explain why developing economies with significant challenges in the energy sector are not actively engaged in NHRE diffusion. In doing so, the entry reviews scholarly work on renewable energy (RE) deployment in developing countries and presents a two-stage analytical framework for assessing the NHRE development status. The procedure helps assess the current situation in the national energy sectors in connection to their economic growth and development, environmental sustainability and energy security. At the next stage, the framework lets analyse the preparedness of the national energy sectors for NHRE diffusion. The analysis spans six dimensions: structure of energy sector, RE regulation, institutions and governance, capital and investment, infrastructure and business environment, and human capital. The two-stage analytical framework assists in checking the hypothesis that more advanced economically and institutionally countries are more likely to commence NHRE development.
  • 296
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Terrestrial and Marine Datasets Integration
The entry describes the benefits associated with an accurate integration of terrestrial and marine geospatial datasets for environmental sciences. Attention is given to technology and interdisciplinarity which are playing an important role in this direction.
  • 227
  • 10 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Water Scarcity
Water scarcity, defined as long-term water imbalances occurring when the level of water demand exceeds natural water availability and supply capacity, is expected to pose high risks to both societies and economies in the next decade.
  • 208
  • 03 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Urban Rain Flood Models
The basis of studying urban rain and flood problems is to establish urban rain and flood models, calibrate and verify the models by simulating and reproducing historical flood events, and then provide technical support for urban hydrological forecasting, urban planning, and water resource utilization. The essence is to alleviate or even solve the problem of urban flood.
  • 206
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review Video
The Image of the Smart City
The image of the city was first introduced by Kevin Lynch in 1960, and referred to the ways in which urban space is perceived by their users, and how these acts are based on mental maps, whose elements can be put into well-defined categories: paths, nodes, edges, districts, and landmarks.
  • 177
  • 16 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Leaf area index
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter.This work provides a introduction of LiDAR technology and the LAI estimation with LiDAR, LAI validation studies, and factors affecting the LAI estimation.
  • 171
  • 16 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Decentralization and Sustainable Resource Management
The World Bank and other international donor communities have often supported decentralization of natural resource management (NRM) based on the assumption that it would bring governance down to local level actors and generate a range of positive outcomes, including ecological sustainability and poverty reduction. Ghana makes an interesting case study to critically analyze the intertwined relationship among decentralization policy, mining title formalization, and CRAFT because of the prominent role that they play in current NRM practices. Like many Sub-Saharan African countries, the exploitation of gold ore in Ghana is shaped by three main sources of formal rules, including public policies, mining concession, and customary law. Customary law governs surface land rights while statutory laws and regulations govern subterranean mineral resources, leading to a situation where gold ore mining is the result of the interactions of customary law and government laws and regulations. This affects the governance and coordination of mineral wealth exploitation, which can positively or negatively affect resource sustainability.
  • 152
  • 05 Jul 2021
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