Topic Review
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
A description of standard NMR experiments along with some examples.
  • 680
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Nuclear Symmetry Energy
Nuclear symmetry energy is a measure of the energy cost to make nuclear systems more neutron rich. It depends on the density of the system. Information about the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy has broad ramifications on the mechanisms of supernova explosions, properties of neutron stars and gravitational waves from their mergers. It is also important for understanding properties of nuclei as well as the dynamics and products of their collisions in laboratory experiments. 
  • 556
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Cosmogenic Activation
       The cosmogenic activation of materials is the production of radioactive isotopes due to the exposure to cosmic rays. On the Earth's surface, spallation induced by cosmic neutrons is responsible of most of the activation, but other reactions and cosmic ray components must be considered too in other conditions, like if materials are flown at high altitudes or stored deep underground.        Cosmogenic activation is relevant in different contexts; for example, together with primordial or anthropogenic radioactivity, it s a background source in experiments devoted to the investigation of rare event phenomena, like the direct detection of dark matter particles or the nuclear double beta decay. 
  • 412
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Theranostic Radiopharmaceuticals
Theranostic Radiopharmaceuticals (Radiotheranostics) is a term in the medical field to define the combination of therapeutic and diagnostic techniques by a suitable radiopharmaceutical agent. Radionuclides are isotopes that emit radiation or have excess nuclear energy, making them chemically unstable and tend to change into another atom. Various types of radiation can be emitted by radionuclides e.g. alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma energy. In radiotheranostics, a pharmaceutical agent (drug) is needed to be a carrier molecule that introduces the radionuclide to its target. Radionuclides are then used as a source of radiation in radiotheranostics that are responsible for diagnosing or treating various diseases.
  • 140
  • 24 May 2022
Topic Review
Mining for Gluon Saturation
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons collectively called partons, the basic constituents of all nuclear matter. Its non-abelian character manifests in nature in the form of two remarkable properties: color confinement and asymptotic freedom. At high energies, perturbation theory can result in the growth and dominance of very gluon densities at small-x. If left uncontrolled, this growth can result in gluons eternally growing violating a number of mathematical bounds. The resolution to this problem lies by balancing gluon emissions by recombinating gluons at high energies : phenomena of gluon saturation. High energy nuclear and particle physics experiments have spent the past decades quantifying the structure of protons and nuclei in terms of their fundamental constituents confirming predicted extraordinary behavior of matter at extreme density and pressure conditions. In the process they have also measured seemingly unexpected phenomena. We will give a state of the art review of the underlying theoretical and experimental tools and measurements pertinent to gluon saturation physics. We will argue for the need of high energy electron-proton/ion colliders such as the proposed EIC (USA) and LHeC (Europe) to consolidate our knowledge of QCD in the small x kinematic domains. 
  • 96
  • 02 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Role of Uranium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Uranium was discovered in 1789 by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. It is the most known and used actinide element mainly because of its usage in nuclear fuel processing; however, the application potential of uranium compounds is much broader, stretching, e.g., into the field of organometallic synthesis, catalysis and beyond. Moreover, uranium is one of the few naturally occurring actinides, whereas the other members, with the exception of thorium, are considered to be human-made, despite their natural occurrence in traces as a result of uranium and thorium spontaneous fissions. In nature, uranium occurs as three main isotopes, where the non-fissile 238U is the most abundant, encompassing over 99% of the available uranium resources.
  • 78
  • 23 May 2022