Topic Review
Sustainable Development Goals
Sürdürülebilir kalkınma hedefleri (SDG'ler), 2015'te kabul edilen 17 hedefi içeren, BM'nin herkes için daha iyi ve daha sürdürülebilir bir gelecek elde etme planının küresel bir kalkınma programıdır. Yoksulluk, eşitsizlik, iklim değişikliği dahil olmak üzere küresel nüfusun karşılaştığı zorlukları ele alırlar. , çevresel bozulma, barış ve adalet. Programlar genellikle sürdürülebilir ekonomik büyümeyi ve sürdürülebilir kalkınma için 2030 gündemini uygulamak için sürdürülebilirliğin güçlendirilmesi modlarını vurgular. Bu SDG'lerden SDGS 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 ve 17, doğrudan ve/veya dolaylı olarak sürdürülebilirlik ve döngüsellik fenomeniyle bağlantılıdır. Birleşmiş Milletler'in (BM) SKH'lerine imza atan ülkelerdeki hükümetler, ulusal politika ve programlar da dahil olmak üzere farklı eylemlerde bulunarak hedefe ulaşılmasında çok önemli bir rol oynamaktadır,
  • 475
  • 03 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Non-Hispanic or Latino Whites
Non-Hispanic whites or Non-Latino whites are European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans as defined by the United States Census Bureau. Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups and more than half of the white population are German, Irish, English, Italian and Polish Americans. In the United States , this population was first derived from English (and, to a lesser degree, French) settlement of the Americas, as well as settlement by other Europeans such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, France and Wales, as well as Poland, Russia, and many more countries. It typically refers to an English-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in Mexico and the Southwestern states. In some parts of the country, the term Anglo-American is used to refer to non-Hispanic white English speakers as distinct from Spanish speakers although the term is more frequently used to refer to people of British or English descent and might include white people of Hispanic descent who no longer speak Spanish.
  • 34
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D Scarcity in Arctic and  Tropical Peoples
Vitamin D metabolism differs among human populations because the species has adapted to different natural and cultural environments. Two environments are particularly difficult for the production of vitamin D by the skin: the Arctic, where the skin receives little solar UVB over the year; and the Tropics, where the skin is highly melanized and blocks UVB. In both cases, natural selection has favored the survival of those individuals who use vitamin D more efficiently or have some kind of workaround that ensures sufficient uptake of calcium and other essential minerals from food passing through the intestines. Vitamin D scarcity has either cultural or genetic solutions. Cultural solutions include consumption of meat in a raw or boiled state and extended breastfeeding of children. Genetic solutions include higher uptake of calcium from the intestines, higher rate of conversion of vitamin D to its most active form, stronger binding of vitamin D to carrier proteins in the bloodstream, and greater use of alternative metabolic pathways for calcium uptake. Because their bodies use vitamin D more sparingly, indigenous Arctic and Tropical peoples can be misdiagnosed with vitamin D deficiency and wrongly prescribed dietary supplements that may push their vitamin D level over the threshold of toxicity.
  • 46
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Humans and the Olfactory Environment
The sense of smell is underappreciated. Though less crucial than sight or hearing, it tells about what people neither see nor hear. It also enriches sight and hearing with biochemical data on objects of interest. Finally, by producing disgust or pleasure, it helps decide whether such objects should be avoided or approached. Humans have remade their olfactory environment, typically by making it more pleasant-smelling, just as they have remade their visual environment to make it more pleasant-looking. But the process has not been one-way. By remaking the environment, people have ended up remaking ourselves. On the one hand, humans have been creating more and more of their world; on the other hand, this human-created world has been modifying their genomes via natural selection.  
  • 96
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Historical Ecology in Brazil
The term “Historical Ecology” has been defined by two different research scholarships: (1) as a field that draws upon diverse evidence to trace complex, long-term relationships between humanity and Earth; and (2) as a field related to evolutionary ecology and the use of phylogenetic systematics, which may or may not involve anthropogenic agency. Here we embrace and refer to the first definition. Hence, Historical Ecology is a multidisciplinary field (or research program) that investigates human-environment relationships resulting in continuous spatial, environmental, historical, and cultural interactions. Its primary focus is the physical evidence etched in the landscape. The use of landscape as an analytical framework and spatial unit is valuable and widely used in Historical Ecology.  
  • 303
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
Documented Skeletal Collections in the United States
In the US, documented skeletal collections are a collective of human skeletons that originated (mostly) from body donations, human taphonomy facilities (e.g., the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection), and anatomical dissections (e.g., Robert J. Terry Anatomical Collection). These collections are a major asset in the testing and development of methods used to infer the biological profile of human remains.
  • 331
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Satisfaction Factors That Predict Loyalty in Ecotourism
Recently, foreign tourists have revealed a growing interest for natural environment enjoyment. Results show three satisfaction factors in ecotourism: “nature and culture”, “infrastructure”, and “service”, where “nature and culture” was the most influential predictor of tourists’ loyalty. The entry also found a positive correlation between satisfaction and loyalty in ecotourism. 
  • 130
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Estimation of Sex in the Portuguese Identified Collections
The estimation of biological sex, a parameter of critical importance in the identification of unidentified skeletal remains both in contemporary forensic contexts and bioarcheological studies of past societies. Sex pertains to the biological and/or genetic attributes of an individual, and according to which it is classified as female, male or intersex. The conventional anthropological workflow for the evaluation of a biological profile—i.e., sex, ancestry, age at death and stature—often begins with sex assessment, as the analyses of age at death and stature are sex-contingent. The estimation of sex in skeletal remains depends on the identification and evaluation of the phenotypic differences between the skeletons of males and females. Differences in size and shape are unequally expressed throughout the skeleton, and the pelvis is generally considered the most dimorphic skeletal region.
  • 127
  • 06 Apr 2022
Topic Review
The Lockean Proviso and Orbital Sustainability
Over the last decades, human have witnessed the gradual commercialization of the Earth orbit. The exponential development of private space activities makes this distant natural field, with the overcoming of technological difficulties, more and more hospitable to free initiative and entrepreneurship. However, the orbital space is considered global commons. Through the imaginary case method, researchers intend to ponder on possible ways to legally regulate the exploitation of the orbital space, namely the application of Pigouvian taxes, on the sustainability of the orbital environment, through ethical considerations originating from the application of the Lockean proviso. 
  • 111
  • 06 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Heritage Tourism in Mexico
Tourism activity in general, with the heritage tourism sector in particular, represented the second inflow of foreign currency to Mexico in 2019 (pre-pandemic), with more than USD 24 million. According to local polls, the main purpose of travel is leisure. However, more than half of tourists (local and foreigner) who visit Mexico enjoy/visit an archaeological site, a museum, and/or a local community.
  • 339
  • 01 Apr 2022
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