Topic Review
Perilymph Sampling Advances Inner Ear Diagnostics
In the clinical setting, the pathophysiology of sensorineural hearing loss is poorly defined and there are currently no diagnostic tests available to differentiate between subtypes. This often leaves patients with generalized treatment options such as steroids, hearing aids, or cochlear implantation. The gold standard for localizing disease is direct biopsy or imaging of the affected tissue; however, the inaccessibility and fragility of the cochlea make these techniques difficult. Thus, the establishment of an indirect biopsy, a sampling of inner fluids, is needed to advance inner ear diagnostics and allow for the development of novel therapeutics for inner ear disease. A promising source is perilymph, an inner ear liquid that bathes multiple structures critical to sound transduction. Intraoperative perilymph sampling via the round window membrane of the cochlea has been successfully used to profile the proteome, metabolome, and transcriptome of the inner ear and is a potential source of biomarker discovery. Here, we discuss the various applications of human perilymph sampling and propose a design for a sampling needle.
  • 105
  • 18 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Pathophysiology, Immunosenescence and Inflammaging of Presbyacusis
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), or presbyacusis, is a type of sensorineural hearing loss that primarily affects the elderly. However, the age of onset, rate of decline, and severity of hearing loss vary widely. As a result of ageing, the immune system can become defective, leading to the accumulation of unresolved inflammatory processes in the body. Various stimuli can sustain inflammaging, including pathogens, cell debris, nutrients, and gut microbiota.
  • 80
  • 12 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Olfactory-Disorders in Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Altered smell is one of the most prevalent symptoms in acute COVID-19 infection. Although most patients recover normal neurosensory function in a few weeks, approximately one-tenth of patients report long-term smell dysfunction, including anosmia, hyposmia, parosmia and phantosmia, with a particularly notable impact on quality of life. In this complex scenario, inflammation and cellular damage may play a key role in the pathogenesis of olfactory dysfunctions and may affect olfactory signaling from the peripheral to the central nervous system.
  • 131
  • 29 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Nutritional Intervention on Taste Perception
Taste is primarily a nutrient sensing system. The texture of the food and the rate at which it is eaten, have a profound effect on the time of orosensory exposure to foods and to satiation. It has been established that slower eating leads to a longer exposure to taste.
  • 144
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Nasal Mucosa Injury
Nasal mucosa injury can be caused by trauma, radiotherapy, chronic infection such as sinusitis, and post sinus surgery. The rate of healing and its treatment are important in the recovery of patients especially in post sinus surgery, which introduces new injuries.
  • 341
  • 28 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Myofunctional Therapy in Sleep-Disordered Breathing
Myofunctional therapy (MFT) may have a role in improving muscle tone and alleviating upper airway collapse in sleep-disordered breathing. The purposes of this state-of-the-art review are to first review systematically the current literature on the effectiveness of MFT in treating sleep-disordered breathing and then to provide an overview of the current understanding of patient selection, side effects, type and duration of exercises, guidance of exercise performance, evaluation of results, and how best to promote adherence. PubMed (Medline), the Cochrane Library, and the EMBASE, Scopus and SciELO databases were checked for relevant studies by three authors, and a total of 23 studies were included.
  • 207
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. The most researched pathway associated with ACC is the MYB–NFIB translocation, found to lead to dysregulation of critical cellular pathways and thought to be a fundamental driver in a subset of ACC disease pathogenesis. Other notable molecular targets that have been studied include the cKIT receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, and NOTCH1, all with limited efficacy in clinical trials. The ongoing investigation of molecular abnormalities underpinning ACC that may be responsible for carcinogenesis is critical to identifying and developing novel targeted therapies.
  • 155
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Methodologies for ctDNA Detection
Circulating extracellular DNA that is tumor-derived, referred to as ctDNA, often adheres to the surfaces of leukocytes and erythrocytes. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has the potential to improve outcomes by enhancing screening, early diagnosis, and surveillance in head and neck cancer patients. 
  • 80
  • 07 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Intraoperative In Vivo Imaging Modalities in HNC Status
Surgical margin status is one of the strongest prognosticators in predicting patient outcomes in head and neck cancer, yet head and neck surgeons continue to face challenges in the accurate detection of these margins with the current standard of care. Advances in intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed to address these limitations in determining cancer margins in head and neck cancer (HNC). These modalities include optical coherence tomography, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence, and fluorescent-tagged probe techniques. Studies have demonstrated encouraging sensitivity and specificity in detecting HNC margins and cancer from normal tissue. 
  • 55
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Inner Ear Malformations
Inner ear malformations are a spectrum of congenital anomalies involving the inner ear structures with an emphasis on the cochlea due to their implications for sensorineural hearing loss.
  • 545
  • 03 Nov 2021
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