Topic Review
Thrombin-Gelatin Matrix in Breast Tumor Hemostasis
Improved hemostasis during acute bleeding and a trend to prevent hematoma were observed after the TGM injection. TGM could be an alternative method to achieve better post-VABB hemostasis.
  • 243
  • 02 Mar 2022
Topic Review
The History of Blood Vessel Anastomosis
Surgical technique and technology frequently coevolve. The brief history of blood vessel anastomosis is full of famous names. While the techniques pioneered by these surgeons have been well described, the technology that facilitated their advancements and their inventors deserve recognition. The mass production of laboratory microscopes in the mid-1800s allowed for an explosion of interest in tissue histology. This improved understanding of vascular physiology and thrombosis laid the groundwork for Carrel and Guthrie to report some of the first successful vascular anastomoses. In 1916, McLean discovered heparin. Twenty-four years later, Gordon Murray found that it could prevent thrombosis when performing end-to-end anastomosis. These discoveries paved the way for the first-in-human kidney transplantations. Otolaryngologists Nylen and Holmgren were the first to bring the laboratory microscope into the operating room, but Jacobson was the first to apply these techniques to microvascular anastomosis. His first successful attempt in 1960 and the subsequent development of microsurgical tools allowed for an explosion of interest in microsurgery, and several decades of innovation followed.
  • 416
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
The Challenge of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (pCCA) are rare yet aggressive tumors originating from the bile ducts. While surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, only a minority of patients are amenable to curative resection, and the prognosis of unresectable patients is dismal. The introduction of liver transplantation (LT) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for unresectable pCCA in 1993 represented a major breakthrough, and it has been associated with 5-year survival rates consistently >50%. Despite these encouraging results, pCCA has remained a niche indication for LT, which is most likely due to the need for stringent candidate selection and the challenges in preoperative and surgical management.
  • 49
  • 27 Mar 2023
Topic Review
The Bone Regeneration
Bone regeneration is a complex process that is influenced by tissue interactions, inflammatory responses, and progenitor cells.
  • 273
  • 13 May 2021
Topic Review
The Association of Gut Microbiota in Gastrointestinal-Cancer Therapies
The gut microbiome of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoes specific changes during different therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Likewise, complications of these therapies are associated with specific changes in the microbiome. 
  • 343
  • 02 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Textured Surface Implants and BIA-ALCL
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) associated with textured-surface silicone breast implants. Since first being described in 1997, over 1100 cases have been reported worldwide. A causal relationship between BIA-ALCL and textured implants has been established in epidemiological studies.
  • 69
  • 23 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Techniques to Preserve Endothelial Cells in Vein Grafts
Endothelial cells comprise the intimal layer of the vasculature, playing a crucial role in facilitating and regulating aspects such nutrient transport, vascular homeostasis, and inflammatory response. Endothelial dysfunction is believed to be a key driver for vein graft disease—a pathology in which vein grafts utilised in coronary artery bypass graft surgery develop intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis, resulting in poor long-term patency rates. Activation and denudation of the endothelium following surgical trauma and implantation of the graft encourage a host of immune, inflammatory, and cellular differentiation responses that risk driving the graft to failure. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the onset and progression of this pathology both clincally and surgically, including optimisation of surgical technique, vein preservation conditions and pharma-modulation. Novel approaches are also under investigation in recent years, including the use of topical gene therapy and the utilisation of endothelial progenitor/colony-forming cells to regenerate vein grafts with the view to improving patient outcomes.
  • 241
  • 10 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Tactile Displays for Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery
Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is a minimally invasive technique that offers many advantages over traditional open surgery: it reduces trauma, scarring, and shortens recovery time. Researchers review the applications and challenges in the development of tactile feedback technologies that can be implemented with conventional laparoscopic instruments
  • 139
  • 09 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Systemic Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Maxillofacial Trauma
Infection after maxillofacial trauma remains an important complication, with a significant socio-economic impact. While consensus exists that systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the risk of infection in the management of maxillofacial fractures, the type, and duration remain controversial. 
  • 146
  • 22 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Surgical Treatment for Grade C Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a troublesome complication after pancreatic surgeries, and grade C POPF is the most serious situation among pancreatic fistulas. The incidence of grade C POPF varies from less than 1% to greater than 9%, with an extremely high postoperative mortality rate of 25.7%. The patients with grade C POPF finally undergo surgery with a poor prognosis after various failed conservative treatments. Although various surgical and perioperative attempts have been made to reduce the incidence of grade C POPF, the rates of this costly complication have not been significantly diminished. Hearteningly, several related studies have found that intra-abdominal infection from intestinal flora could promote the development of grade C POPF, which would help physicians to better prevent this complication.
  • 105
  • 03 Jan 2023
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