Topic Review
Inferior Mesenteric Artery Ligation Level in Rectal-Cancer Surgery
Within the intricate field of rectal cancer surgery, the contentious debate over the optimal level of ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) persists as an ongoing discussion, influencing surgical approaches and patient outcomes.
  • 109
  • 08 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is a frequent neoplasm in western countries, mainly due to dietary and behavioral factors. Its incidence is growing in developing countries for the westernization of foods and lifestyles. An increased incidence rate is observed in patients under 45 years of age. In recent years, the mortality for CRC is decreased, but this trend is slowing. The mortality rate is reducing in those countries where prevention and treatments have been implemented. The survival is increased to over 65%. This trend reflects earlier detection of CRC through routine clinical examinations and screening, more accurate staging through advances in imaging, improvements in surgical techniques, and advances in chemotherapy and radiation. 
  • 147
  • 02 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Complications of Pancreaticoduodenectomy with Concurrent Colectomies
A pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is one of the most challenging abdominal surgical procedures and is associated with increased rates of postoperative complications, including severe ones, potentially leading to postoperative deaths. Even at very high-volume centers for pancreatic resections, the morbidity rates after PD are relatively high, while the perioperative mortality cannot be neglected. Multi-visceral resections for colon and pancreatic cancer (PDAC) are feasible, safe, and justified for early and late outcomes. However, the use of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with concurrent colectomies is highly debatable in terms of morbidity and oncological benefits.
  • 105
  • 29 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Early Complications of Esophagectomy
Esophagectomy is a technically complex operation performed for both benign and malignant esophageal disease. Medical and surgical advancements have led to improved outcomes in esophagectomy patients over the past several decades; however, surgeons must remain vigilant as complications happen often and can be severe. Post-esophagectomy complications can be grouped into early and late categories.
  • 81
  • 29 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Classifications and Treatments for Gliomas
Gliomas pose a significant challenge to neurosurgical oncology because of their diverse histopathological features, genetic heterogeneity, and clinical manifestations. Despite significant advances in understanding the molecular pathways of glioma, translating this knowledge into effective long-term solutions remains a challenge. 
  • 191
  • 29 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Complications Associated with Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion
The main advantage of Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion (OLIF) is its ability to provide safe access to the lumbar spine while being a robust interbody fusion technique through a minimally invasive approach. The rate of major complications after OLIF is minimal, making it a safe procedure with significant benefits outweighing the risks. The advantages of OLIF L2-5 with posterior stabilisation over stand-alone OLIF L2-5 is a subject of discussion.
  • 128
  • 22 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Anti-Angiogenic Agents in Thymic Epithelial Tumor Treatment
Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are included in the rare group of cancers of the anterior mediastinum known as thymic epithelial tumors (TET). Their origin is the thymus’ epithelial cells. Anti-angiogenics have shown their potential efficacy in many solid tumors; however, their place in the treatment of thymic epithelial tumors (TET) comprising thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) is less clear. Angiogenesis significantly influences TET carcinogenesis. Both thymomas and TC overexpress VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 and -2.
  • 227
  • 15 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has gained a significant place due to the emergence of innovative tools and improvements in surgical techniques, offering comparable efficacy and safety to traditional surgical methods.
  • 155
  • 07 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Treatment of the Lips Using a CO2 Laser
A number of studies have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of CO2 laser irradiation for the repair and regeneration of scar tissue from injuries or surgical wounds. However, such studies of the oral mucosa are highly limited. Previous studies using CO2 laser irradiation have indicated that two factors contribute to esthetic healing, namely, artificial scabs, which are a coagulated and carbonized blood layer formed on the wound surface, and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for suppressing wound scarring and promoting wound healing. 
  • 159
  • 06 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Definitions and the Basics of Knot Tying
Surgical knots are sequences of half-knots (H) or half-hitches (S), defined by their number of throws, by an opposite or similar rotation compared with the previous one, and for half-hitches whether they are sliding (s) or blocking (b). Opposite rotation results in (more secure) symmetric (s) knots, similar rotation in asymmetric (a) knots, and changing the active and passive ends has the same effect as changing the rotation. Loop security is the force to keep tissue together after a first half-knot or sliding half-hitches. With polyfilament sutures, H2, H3, SSs, and SSsSsSs have a loop security of 10, 18, 28, and 48 Newton (N), respectively. With monofilament sutures, they are only 7, 16, 18, and 25 N. For knot security, half hitch sequences such as 2 sliding and 2 blocking half hitches are the future: the risk of destabilisation is less, and for monofilament sutures, they are mandatory.   
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  • 05 Dec 2023
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