Topic Review
Art Therapy
Art therapy (not to be confused with arts therapy, which includes other creative therapies such as drama therapy and music therapy) is a distinct discipline that incorporates creative methods of expression through visual art media. Art therapy, as a creative arts therapy profession, originated in the fields of art and psychotherapy and may vary in definition. There are three main ways that art therapy is employed. The first one is called analytic art therapy. Analytic art therapy is based on the theories that come from analytical psychology, and in more cases, psychoanalysis. Analytic art therapy focuses on the client, the therapist, and the ideas that are transferred between the both of them through art. Another way that art therapy is utilized is art psychotherapy. This approach focuses more on the psychotherapist and their analysis of their clients artwork verbally. The last way art therapy is looked at is through the lens of art as therapy. Some art therapists practicing art as therapy believe that analyzing the client’s artwork verbally is not essential, therefore they stress the creation process of the art instead. In all of these different approaches to art therapy, the art therapist's client goes on the journey to delve into their inner thoughts and emotions by the use of paint, paper and pen, clay, sand, or maybe even fabric. Art therapy can be used to help people improve cognitive and sensory motor function, self-esteem, self awareness, emotional resilience. It may also aide in resolving conflicts and reduce distress. Current art therapy includes a vast number of other approaches such as person-centered, cognitive, behavior, Gestalt, narrative, Adlerian, and family. The tenets of art therapy involve humanism, creativity, reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, and personal growth.
  • 85
  • 14 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Assertive Community Treatment
Assertive community treatment (ACT) is an intensive and highly integrated approach for community mental health service delivery. ACT teams serve individuals with the most serious forms of mental illness, predominantly but not exclusively the schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ACT service recipients may also have diagnostic profiles that include features typically found in other DSM-5 categories (for example, bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders, among others). Many have histories of frequent psychiatric hospitalization, substance abuse, victimization and trauma, arrests and incarceration, homelessness, and additional significant challenges. The symptoms and complications of their mental illnesses have led to serious functioning difficulties in several areas of life, often including work, social relationships, residential independence, money management, and physical health and wellness. By the time they start receiving ACT services, they are likely to have experienced failure, discrimination, and stigmatization, and their hope for the future is likely to be quite low.
  • 61
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Assessment of Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction
The autonomic nervous system delicately regulates the function of several target organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, nerve lesions or other nerve pathologies may cause autonomic dysfunction (AD). Some of the most common causes of AD are diabetes mellitus and α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. Widespread dysmotility throughout the gastrointestinal tract is a common finding in AD, but no commercially available method exists for direct verification of enteric dysfunction. Thus, assessing segmental enteric physiological function is recommended to aid diagnostics and guide treatment.
  • 780
  • 24 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Attachment Therapy
Attachment therapy (also called "the Evergreen model," "holding time," "rage-reduction," "compression therapy," "rebirthing," "corrective attachment therapy," and Coercive Restraint Therapy) is a pseudoscientific child mental health intervention intended to treat attachment disorders. It is found primarily in the United States, and much of it is centered in about a dozen clinics in Evergreen, Colorado, where Foster Cline, one of the founders, established his clinic in the 1970s. The practice has resulted in adverse outcomes for children, including at least six documented child fatalities. Since the 1990s there have been a number of prosecutions for deaths or serious maltreatment of children at the hands of "attachment therapists" or parents following their instructions. Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2000 and the Gravelles in 2003. Following the associated publicity, some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006, commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. In April 2007, ATTACh, an organization originally set up by attachment therapists, formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting, promoting instead newer techniques of attunement, sensitivity and regulation. Attachment therapy is primarily based on Robert Zaslow's rage-reduction therapy from the 1960s and '70s and on psychoanalytic theories about suppressed rage, catharsis, regression, breaking down of resistance and defence mechanisms. Zaslow, Tinbergen, Martha Welch and other early proponents used it as a treatment for autism, based on the now discredited belief that autism was the result of failures in the attachment relationship with the mother. This form of treatment differs significantly from evidence-based attachment-based therapies, talking psychotherapies such as attachment-based psychotherapy and relational psychoanalysis.
  • 74
  • 14 Oct 2022
Topic Review
BCG Vaccination
BCG vaccine has been used for 100 years to prevent tuberculosis. Not all countries, including the United States, adopted the initial World Health Organization recommendation to use BCG. Moreover, many Western countries that had routinely used BCG have discontinued its use.
  • 128
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Behcet’s Disease
Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder characterized by a range of manifestations, such as recurrent oral ulcers, genital ulcers, arthritis, vasculitis, and skin lesions. The age of onset of BD is usually 30–40 years. 
  • 162
  • 28 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Biological Clock in Liver Cancer
The biological clock controls at the molecular level several aspects of mammalian physiology, by regulating daily oscillations of crucial biological processes such as nutrient metabolism in the liver. Disruption of the circadian clock circuitry has recently been identified as an independent risk factor for cancer and classified as a potential group 2A carcinogen to humans. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the prevailing histological type of primary liver cancer, one of the most important causes of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC onset and progression is related to B and C viral hepatitis, alcoholic and especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related milieu of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and chronic inflammation.
  • 198
  • 13 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Biomarkers during COVID-19
As the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 19) pandemic spreads worldwide, the massive numbers of COVID-19 patients have created a considerable healthcare burden for every country. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection is broad, ranging from asymptomatic to mild, moderate, severe, and critical. Most COVID-19 patients present with no or mild symptoms, but nearly one-fifth of all patients develop severe or life-threatening complications. In addition to localized respiratory manifestations, severe COVID-19 cases also show extra-pulmonary complications or induce multiorgan failure. Identifying, triaging, and treating patients at risk early is essential and urgent. Biomarkers are measurable biochemical substances used to recognize and indicate disease severity or response to therapeutic interventions. The information they provide is objective and suitable for delivering healthcare providers with a means of stratifying disease state in COVID-19 patients. 
  • 167
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Biomarkers of Inflammation for Management of Diabetes
Virus infection, inflammation and genetic factors are important factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a family of transcription factors that bind the enhancer of the κ light chain gene of B cell immunoglobulin. NF-κB plays an essential role in the activation and development of B cells, and the activation of NF-κB is critical in the inflammation and development of diabetes mellitus. Recently, immunoglobulin-free light chain (FLC) λ was found to be increased in the sera of patients with diabetes mellitus, and the FLC λ and κ/λ ratios are more specific and sensitive markers for the diagnosis of diabetes relative to glycated hemoglobin A1c. Thus, FLCs may be promising biomarkers of inflammation that could relate to the activation of NF-κB. 
  • 104
  • 17 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Biosensor-Integrated Drug Delivery Systems in Diabetes
One of the most recognized diseases worldwide is diabetes. There are currently almost half a billion individuals globally with this disease and this is expected to crest three quarters of a billion by the end of the decade. Traditionally, diabetes is broken into three categories: Type 1 (previously referred to as juvenile); Type 2 (occasion defined as adult onset), and gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in ~2–10% of pregnant women with roughly 50% of these cases leading to the mother developing T2D after giving birth. Generally, 5–10% of cases of diabetes are of the T1D form with the remaining 90–95% having T2D. The need to monitor blood glucose, whether for T1D or T2D, is vital for the health and welfare of those afflicted with these diseases. Equally, if not more important, is the need to administer the necessary drug once the knowledge of one’s blood glucose is determined. It is this key second part that has led to significant efforts and ultimate successes in bringing closed-loop systems for diabetes management to market.
  • 79
  • 08 Sep 2022
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