Topic Review
2LARTH® Micro-Immunotherapy Treatment
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are two cytokines involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammation state characterizing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant advances in the treatment of this pathology have been made over the past ten years, partially through the development of anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies. However, major side effects still persist and new alternative therapies should be considered.
  • 478
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy
Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) is a mind-body psychotherapy that is informed by research in the areas of attachment theory, emotion theory, and neuroscience of change. This model of psychotherapy incorporates techniques from experiential therapies (such as Gestalt therapy and person-centered therapy) and ISTDP. AEDP was initially developed as a psychotherapy to treat the effects of childhood attachment trauma and abuse. It is recognized as an effective treatment for complex post-traumatic stress disorder, and attachment disturbances in adults. It is further applied to the treatment of eating disorders, to the treatment considerations when working with diverse populations, to couples therapy, and to the treatment of dissociative disorders. AEDP is applied to the practice of psychotherapy supervision and to short-term psychotherapy.
  • 88
  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Acupressure for Managing Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, which is linked to joint degeneration, loss of cartilage, and alterations of the subchondral bone, and mainly affects the hands, knees, and hips. OA is a highly predominant health condition, which has affected over 260 million people worldwide, and it is becoming even more common due to the combined effects of aging and obesity. OA is even more problematic as it is associated with pain, disability, and personal and economic burden. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure as a treatment method for osteoarthritis. 
  • 142
  • 18 May 2021
Topic Review
Acute Hepatic Porphyrias
Porphyrias are a group of congenital and acquired diseases caused by an enzymatic impairment in the biosynthesis of heme. Depending on the specific enzyme involved, different types of porphyrias (i.e., chronic vs. acute, cutaneous vs. neurovisceral, hepatic vs. erythropoietic) are described, with different clinical presentations. Acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) are characterized by life-threatening acute neuro-visceral crises (acute porphyric attacks, APAs), featuring a wide range of neuropathic (central, peripheral, autonomic) manifestations.
  • 173
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Acyldepsipeptide Analogues for Tuberculosis Treatment
Acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) are a new class of emerging antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are currently explored for treatment of pathogenic infections, including tuberculosis (TB). These cyclic hydrophobic peptides have a unique bacterial target to the conventional anti-TB drugs, and present a therapeutic window to overcome Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. tb) drug resistance. ADEPs exerts their antibacterial activity on M. tb strains through activation of the protein homeostatic regulatory protease, the caseinolytic protease (ClpP1P2). ClpP1P2 is normally regulated and activated by the ClpP-ATPases to degrade misfolded and toxic peptides and/or short proteins. ADEPs bind and dysregulate all the homeostatic capabilities of ClpP1P2 while inducing non-selective proteolysis. The uncontrolled proteolysis leads to M. tb cell death within the host. ADEPs analogues that have been tested possess cytotoxicity and poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties
  • 85
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
ADAM 17 and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition
For decades, metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) has been the goal of wide investigation. Since its discovery as the tumour necrosis factor-α convertase, it has been studied as the main drug target, especially in the context of inflammatory conditions and tumour. In fact, evidence is mounting to support a key role of ADAM17 in the induction of the proliferation, migration and progression of tumour cells and the trigger of the pro-fibrotic process during chronic inflammatory conditions; this occurs, probably, through the activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is a central morphologic conversion that occurs in adults during wound healing, tumour progression and organ fibrosis. EMT is characterised by the disassembly of cell–cell contacts, remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and separation of cells, and generates fibroblast-like cells that express mesenchymal markers and have migratory properties. This transition is characterised by loss of epithelial proteins such as E-cadherin and the acquisition of new mesenchymal markers, including vimentin and a-smooth muscle actin.
  • 345
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) are more accessible and easier to collect from subcutaneous tissue, they can be collected in large quantities, with less morbidity of the patients, via lipoaspirates or adipose tissue biposy, they are easily isolated, and can simply be expanded in vitro. Moreover, AMSCs have been shown to be immunoprivileged, with low risk of rejection, and more genetically stable in long term culture, with a greater proliferative rate than BM-MSCs.
  • 163
  • 14 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Glycation End Products in Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes is well established as a chronic disease with a high health burden due to mortality or morbidity from the final outcomes of vascular complications. An increased duration of hyperglycemia is associated with abnormal metabolism. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are nonenzymatic glycated forms of free amino acids that lead to abnormal crosslinking of extra-cellular and intracellular proteins by disrupting the normal structure. Furthermore, the interaction of AGEs and their receptors induces several pathways by promoting oxidative stress and inflammation. 
  • 84
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
AML Diagnosis and Prognosis
The development of molecular studies to define the somatic genetic alterations has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a highly heterogenous disease that includes many molecular subtypes; each subtype is heterogeneous both for the presence of variable co-mutations and complex combinations of clones and subclones, changing during disease evolution and in response to treatment. The treatment of AML is changing from standardized schemes of induction and consolidation chemotherapy to tailored approaches according to molecular and genetic profiles and to targeted therapy. Several molecularly targeted therapies have been approved for the treatment of some AML patients, including mutation-specific targeted drugs such as FLT3, IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitors, mutation-independent targeted drugs such as the Bcl2 inhibitor venetoclax, the hedgehog inhibitor glasdegib and the CD33-targeted drug gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the feasibility of a personalized medicine approach for the treatment of AML patients, where the therapy decisions are guided by the results of genomic studies. 
  • 207
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Angiogenic Switch
Regular physical activity in cyclic sports can influence the so-called “angiogenic switch”, which is considered as an imbalance between proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. Disruption of the synthesis of angiogenic molecules can be caused by local changes in tissues under the influence of excessive physical exertion and its consequences, such as chronic oxidative stress and associated hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, sports injuries, etc. 
  • 331
  • 22 Jul 2021
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