Topic Review
Scalable Distributed Hyperledger Fabric
Blockchain technology, with its decentralization characteristics, immutability, and traceability, is well-suited for facilitating secure storage, sharing, and management of data in decentralized Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Despite the increasing development of blockchain platforms, there is still no comprehensive approach for adopting blockchain technology in IoT systems. This is due to the blockchain’s limited capability to process substantial transaction requests from a massive number of IoT devices. Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) is a popular open-source permissioned blockchain platform hosted by the Linux Foundation. 
  • 75
  • 26 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Blockchain–Cloud Integration
Blockchain is a new and emergent technology that is expected to change the way current markets work. It is a distributed digital ledger and is decentralized. With the current working capacity of blockchain, it has the potential to be the operating system of smart cities. Blockchain is technology that is open source and distributed and is used to record transactions between parties. It provides a way to develop a system that is both verifiable and secured. Blockchain is open source, so different versions of blockchain are available on the market. Each version is developed depending upon the different needs of the various industries. Blockchain is neither owned nor singly controlled by any one authority. Blockchain technology is evolving at a swift pace. It started with Bitcoin, and now there are many types of blockchain. Organizations are developing different versions of blockchain depending upon their need and benefits.
  • 32
  • 21 Jul 2022
Topic Review
A Tangible VR-Based Interactive System for Intergenerational Learning
The recent years have witnessed striking global demographic shifts. Retired elderly people often stay home, seldom communicate with their grandchildren, and fail to acquire new knowledge or pass on their experiences.  Digital technologies based on virtual reality (VR) with tangible user interfaces (TUIs) were introduced into the design of a novel interactive system for intergenerational learning, aimed at promoting the elderly people’s interactions with younger generations.
  • 48
  • 31 May 2022
Topic Review
Digital Twin Applications
Industrial Digital Twin (IDT) systems integrate physical and virtual data throughout a product life cycle.
  • 81
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Blockchain-Enabled Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Within the paradigm of distributed ledger technology (DLT), the communication models and practices for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been revolutionized. VANETs introduce a network of self-organizing vehicles that act as mobile nodes. They confine the communication between vehicles and roadside units as V2V and V2R. They assists drivers in avoiding collisions, picking the shortest route on the basis of traffic optimization, identifying tolls and the nearest fuel stations, and in enhancing the safety of assets and lives. They facilitate the communication of vehicles across the network for real-time data transmission. They improve the road safety mechanism and provide instant alerts or information in order to concern the authorities in cases of emergency situations, such as rollovers, accidents, etc. The existing architecture of VANETs also exposes vulnerabilities, such as data sniffing, impersonation, and ransomware attacks.
  • 83
  • 07 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Wireless Technologies for Social Distancing in COVID-19 Pandemic
So-called “social distance” refers to measures that work to prevent disease spread through minimizing human physical contact frequency and intensity, including the closure of public spaces (e.g., schools and offices), avoiding large crowds, and maintaining a safe distance between individuals. Because it reduces the likelihood that an infected person would transmit the illness to a healthy individual, social distance reduces the disease’s progression and impact. During the early stages of a pandemic, social distancing techniques can play a crucial role in decreasing the infection rate and delaying the disease’s peak. Consequently, the load on healthcare systems is reduced, and death rates are reduced. The concept of social distancing may not be as easy as physical distancing, given the rising complexity of viruses and the fast expansion of social interaction and globalization. It encompasses numerous non-pharmaceutical activities or efforts designed to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, including monitoring, detection, and alerting people. Different technologies can assist in maintaining a safe distance (e.g., 1.5 m) between persons in the adopted scenarios. There are a number of wireless and similar technologies that can be used to monitor people and public locations in real-time.
  • 119
  • 25 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Network Function Virtualization and Service Function Chaining Frameworks
Network slicing has become a fundamental property for next-generation networks, especially because an inherent part of 5G standardisation is the ability for service providers to migrate some or all of their network services to a virtual network infrastructure, thereby reducing both capital and operational costs. With network function virtualisation (NFV), network functions (NFs) such as firewalls, traffic load balancers, content filters, and intrusion detection systems (IDS) are either instantiated on virtual machines (VMs) or lightweight containers, often chained together to create a service function chain (SFC). 
  • 83
  • 01 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Power Supply for Wearables with Task Offloading Capabilities
Task-offloading approaches can be efficiently combined with energy harvesting to address the issue of insufficient battery capacity and limited computation resources in IoMT devices and consequently increase the operating time of wearable devices. This is referred to as joint energy harvesting and task offloading. Using this technology, users can extract energy, convert it into useful energy, store it in the appropriate energy-storage device, and use that energy to perform the corresponding local computing and offloading tasks.
  • 81
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Routing in the Data Center
To have adequate routing and forwarding, it is imperative to fully exploit the topological characteristics of fat trees. Some basic requirements should be satisfied: forwarding loops avoidance, rapid failure detection, efficient network utilization (e.g., spanning-tree solutions are not acceptable), routing scalability (in addition to physical scalability). In principle, being the data center a single administrative domain, the candidates to fulfill the routing role are popular link-state IGPs. However, as they have been designed for arbitrary topologies, the flood of link-state advertisements may suffer from scalability issues. Therefore, the possible solutions should entail reducing the message flooding, exploiting the topology knowledge, or using other routing algorithms. In this regard, the following routing protocols will be considered in this work: BGP with a specific configuration for the data center, link-state algorithms with flooding reduction, and ongoing Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) efforts, namely Routing in Fat Trees (RIFT) and Link State Vector Routing (LSVR), which are leveraging link-state and distance-vector advantages to design specific routing algorithms for data centers.This entry only consider distributed control plane solutions, i.e., routing protocols. Consequently, logically centralized Software-Defined Networking (SDN) solutions are not analyzed.
  • 65
  • 27 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Agriculture
Augmented Reality (AR) applications have become prevalent within smart industry manufacturing and wider popular culture sectors over the last decade, yet use of AR technology within an agricultural setting is still within its infancy. 
  • 207
  • 04 Jan 2022
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