Topic Review
Wireless Technologies for Social Distancing in COVID-19 Pandemic
So-called “social distance” refers to measures that work to prevent disease spread through minimizing human physical contact frequency and intensity, including the closure of public spaces (e.g., schools and offices), avoiding large crowds, and maintaining a safe distance between individuals. Because it reduces the likelihood that an infected person would transmit the illness to a healthy individual, social distance reduces the disease’s progression and impact. During the early stages of a pandemic, social distancing techniques can play a crucial role in decreasing the infection rate and delaying the disease’s peak. Consequently, the load on healthcare systems is reduced, and death rates are reduced. The concept of social distancing may not be as easy as physical distancing, given the rising complexity of viruses and the fast expansion of social interaction and globalization. It encompasses numerous non-pharmaceutical activities or efforts designed to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, including monitoring, detection, and alerting people. Different technologies can assist in maintaining a safe distance (e.g., 1.5 m) between persons in the adopted scenarios. There are a number of wireless and similar technologies that can be used to monitor people and public locations in real-time.
  • 119
  • 25 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Scalable Distributed Hyperledger Fabric
Blockchain technology, with its decentralization characteristics, immutability, and traceability, is well-suited for facilitating secure storage, sharing, and management of data in decentralized Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Despite the increasing development of blockchain platforms, there is still no comprehensive approach for adopting blockchain technology in IoT systems. This is due to the blockchain’s limited capability to process substantial transaction requests from a massive number of IoT devices. Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) is a popular open-source permissioned blockchain platform hosted by the Linux Foundation. 
  • 75
  • 26 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Routing in the Data Center
To have adequate routing and forwarding, it is imperative to fully exploit the topological characteristics of fat trees. Some basic requirements should be satisfied: forwarding loops avoidance, rapid failure detection, efficient network utilization (e.g., spanning-tree solutions are not acceptable), routing scalability (in addition to physical scalability). In principle, being the data center a single administrative domain, the candidates to fulfill the routing role are popular link-state IGPs. However, as they have been designed for arbitrary topologies, the flood of link-state advertisements may suffer from scalability issues. Therefore, the possible solutions should entail reducing the message flooding, exploiting the topology knowledge, or using other routing algorithms. In this regard, the following routing protocols will be considered in this work: BGP with a specific configuration for the data center, link-state algorithms with flooding reduction, and ongoing Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) efforts, namely Routing in Fat Trees (RIFT) and Link State Vector Routing (LSVR), which are leveraging link-state and distance-vector advantages to design specific routing algorithms for data centers.This entry only consider distributed control plane solutions, i.e., routing protocols. Consequently, logically centralized Software-Defined Networking (SDN) solutions are not analyzed.
  • 65
  • 27 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Proxy Mobile IPv6/Auxiliary Advertisement of Neighbor Detection
The technique PMIPv6/AAND (Proxy Mobile IPv6/Auxiliary Advertisement of Neighbor Detection) would introduce a novel Multiple Virtual Interface (MVI) technique in PMIPv6 to enable multi-homing. The technique supports effective inter-technology handover and solves the LL-ID swapping problem. Additional flag fields, auxiliary advertisement of neighbor detection (AAND)) fields, i.e., ‘D’ and ‘R’ are displayed in PMIPv6 message format. The new technique is known as PMIPv6/AAND, adapted from F-PMIPv6.
  • 70
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Power Supply for Wearables with Task Offloading Capabilities
Task-offloading approaches can be efficiently combined with energy harvesting to address the issue of insufficient battery capacity and limited computation resources in IoMT devices and consequently increase the operating time of wearable devices. This is referred to as joint energy harvesting and task offloading. Using this technology, users can extract energy, convert it into useful energy, store it in the appropriate energy-storage device, and use that energy to perform the corresponding local computing and offloading tasks.
  • 81
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Olfactory Displays in Education and Training
Olfactory displays are defined as human–computer interfaces that generate and diffuse or transmit one or more odors to a user for a purpose. Computer-generated odors, in conjunction with other sensory information, have been proposed and used in education and training settings over the past four decades, supporting memorization of information, helping immerse learners into 3D educational environments, and complementing or supplementing human senses.
  • 133
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Network Function Virtualization and Service Function Chaining Frameworks
Network slicing has become a fundamental property for next-generation networks, especially because an inherent part of 5G standardisation is the ability for service providers to migrate some or all of their network services to a virtual network infrastructure, thereby reducing both capital and operational costs. With network function virtualisation (NFV), network functions (NFs) such as firewalls, traffic load balancers, content filters, and intrusion detection systems (IDS) are either instantiated on virtual machines (VMs) or lightweight containers, often chained together to create a service function chain (SFC). 
  • 83
  • 01 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Hardware Heritage
Hardware heritage is the history of both hardware and software. Human knowledge, experience, and skills are translated into computation models (binary code) in software and computer environment (‘digital ecosystem’). The history of software is a history of how different communities of practitioners ‘put their world into a computer’.
  • 204
  • 23 Sep 2021
Topic Review
GIS and IoT Integration
Internet-of-Things (IoT) concentrates on enabling communication between Things. It is a broadband network that uses standard communication protocols. Geospatial Information System (GIS) is a powerful set of tools that deal with capturing geospatial data, managing that data in a database, analyzing and pattern recognition, and finally visualizing information. IoT, as an emerging technology along with GIS, can result in advanced and user-friendly features in Smart Cities.
  • 213
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Gate-Level Static Approximate Adders
This work compares and analyzes static approximate adders which are suitable for FPGA and ASIC type implementations. We consider many static approximate adders and evaluate their performance with respect to a digital image processing application using standard figures of merit such as peak signal to noise ratio and structural similarity index metric. We provide the error metrics of approximate adders, and the design metrics of accurate and approximate adders corresponding to FPGA and ASIC type implementations. For the FPGA implementation, we considered a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, and for an ASIC type implementation, we considered a 32-28 nm CMOS standard digital cell library. While the inferences from this work could serve as a useful reference to determine an optimum static approximate adder for a practical application, in particular, we found approximate adders HOAANED, HERLOA and M-HERLOA to be preferable.
  • 99
  • 14 Dec 2021
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